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tive. [He painted the scenery for a play of jEschylus (Vitruv. vii prtef. 10), and decorated the interior of the house of Alcibiades (AndOddes, Alcib. 17).] The Athenian APOLLODGRUS (about b.c. 420) was the actual founder of an entirely new artistic style, which strove to effect illusion by means of the resources of painting. [He was the first, says Pliny, to give his pictures the appearance of reality ; the first to bring the brush into just repute (I.e. 60).] He also led the way in the proper manage-
I torial representation, rendering on a flat surface the relief and variety of nature, and the consequent attainment of the greatest possible illusion. Its principal representatives were zeuxis of Heraclea and parrhasius of Ephesus; timanthes also produced remarkable works, though not an adherent of the same school. It was opposed by the Sicyonian school, founded by Eupompus of Slcyon, and developed by Pamphilus of Amphlpolis, which aimed at greater precision of technical training, very
ment of the fusion of colours and their due gradation in different degrees of light and shade [Pliny, I.e. 60], [It was to this that he owed his title of shadow-painter (sfc?a-grdphOs: Hesychlus on skia).]
The Attic school flourished till about the end of the 5th century, when this art was for some time neglected at Athens, but made another important advance in the towns of Asia Minor, especially at Ep'iesus. The principal merits of this, the Ionic school, consist in richer and more delicate colouring, a more perfect system of pic-
careful and characteristic drawing, and a sober and effective colouring [Pliny, I.e. 75, 76]. pausias, a member of this school, invented the art of foreshortening and of painting on vaulted ceilings, besides perfecting the encaustic art, which was much more favourable for purposes of illusion and picturesque effectiveness than painting in tempera \ib. 123-127]. Greek painting reached its summit in the works of apelles of Cos, in the second half of the 4th century ; he knew how to combine the merits of the Ionian and the Sicyonian schools, the