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442

P.EDAGOGUS——PAGUS.

then an epithet of gods who grant recovery and deliverance, especially of Apollo. The pgean, which appears in Homer [H. i 473, xxii 391], was connected originally with Apollo and his sister Artemis. It was a solemn song for several voices, either pray­ing for the averting of evil and for rescue, or giving thanks for help vouchsafed. The name was, however, also used in an extended sense for invocations to other gods. The psean was struck up by generals before the battle and by armies on the march against the enemy, as well as after the victory. Similarly it was sounded when the fleet sailed out of harbour. Pseans were sung at entertainments between the meal and the carousal, and eventually also at public funerals.

Psdagogus (Gr. PaiddgogSs, lit. "boy-leader "). The name among the Greeks for the slave who had the duty of looking after the son of his master whilst in boyhood, instructing him in certain rules of good manners, and attending him whenever he went out, especially to school and to the pcilwstra and gymn&sium. With the Romans in earlier times it was an old slave or freedman who had a similar duty as eustos; but after it became the custom to have even children taught to speak Greek, fais place was filled by a Greek slave, who bore the Greek name and had the special duty of instructing his pupils in Greek.

PsedSndmus (Gr. PaidQnamos). At Sparta, the overseer of the education of the young. (See education, 1.)

Paddtrlbes. In Greece, the master who imparted gymnastic instruction in the palcestra. (See education, 1.)

Fienula (Latin). A mantle of shaggy frieze or leather, thick and dark-coloured, without sleeves, buttoned or stitched up in front, in the direction of its length. A hood (cAcullus) was generally fastened on to it, and drawn over the head. It was chiefly worn by people of low rank and slaves, but also by the higher classes, and even by ladies, in bad weather, on a journey, and in the country.

Pseonius. (1) A Greek sculptor of Mende in Thrace. About 436 B.C. he was employed in the decoration of the temple of Zeus in Olympia. [According to Pausanias, v 10 § 0], he was the sculptor of the marble groups in the front, or eastern, pediment of the temple, representing the preparations for the chariot-race between Pelops and <Enomaus. (See olympian games, fig. 1.) Important portions of these have been

\

brought to light by the German excavations He was also the sculptor of the figure of Nike, more than life-size, dedicated by the Messenians [t'6. v 26 § 1], which has been restored to us by the same means. With the exception of the head, it is in fairly good preservation (see cut). (2) See eutkopius.

*NIKE OF PHONICS.

lOlvmpift.)

For Griittner's restoration, see Mrs. Mitcbell's Selections from Ancient Sculpture, pi. 14, 1.

Paganalia. In Italy, a movable festival of the old village communities (see pagus), celebrated after the winter-sowing in January, on two days separated by an interval of a week. On this occasion a pregnant sow was sacrificed to Tellus or to Ceres, who at a later period was wor­shipped together with Tellus.

Pagus. In Italy, in ancient times, the pagus was a country district with scattered hamlets (vlci). The same name was given to its fortified centre, which protected the sanctuaries of the district and served as a refuge in time of war. The separate dis­tricts were members of a larger community. After cities had developed out of the places where the people of these districts assembled, the pfigi were either completely merged in their terntorium, or continued to exist merely as geographical districts, without importance for administration, or as sub­ordinate village communities. In Rome the earliest population consisted of the montani, the inhabitants of the seven hills of the city, and the pagani, the inhabitants of

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