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On this page: Naos – Narcissus – Nauarchus – Naucrariae – Naumachiae

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NA NA——N AUMACHI^E.

a narcissus, when she was carried off by Hades.

ginal custom for the adopted son, on passing from one gens to another, to add to the prfpnomen, nomen, and cognomen of his adoptive father the name of his own former yens with the termination -anus. Thus the full name of the destroyer of Carthage, the son of L. yEmilius Paulus adopted by one of the Scipios, was P(ublius) Corne­lius Scipio Africauus jEmilianus. After about 70 a.d. there were many irregulari­ties in the way these names were given, the tendency being to give very many.

Women originally had only one name, the feminine form of the gentile name of their father, e.g. Cornelia. In later times they sometimes had aprtenomen also, which they received on marriage. It was the feminine form of the husband's prainomen, e.g. Gaia. Sometimes they had both names, e.g. Aula Cornelia. The prcenomen went out of use for a time during the later Re­public, and it was afterwards placed after the nomen like a cognomen (e.g. lunia Tertia). Under the Empire, they regularly had two names, either the nomen and cog­nomen of the father (e.g. Csecllia Metella) or the nomina of father and mother (e.g. Valeria Attia, daughter of Attius and Valeria).

Slaves were originally designated by the prasnomen of their master, e.g. Marcipor Marci puer (slave of Marcus). Later, when the number of slaves had been greatly mul­tiplied, it became necessary to give them names chosen at random. Freedmen regu­larly took the nomen, afterwards the prce-nomen also, of the man who freed them (or of the father of the woman who freed them), while they retained their previous name as a cognomen; thus the name of the well-known freedman of Cicero was M. Tullius Tiro, and of a freedman of Livia (the wife of Augustus), M. Livius Ismarus.

Nana. See attis.

Na6s. The Greek term for the inner portion of a temple. (See temple.)

Narcissus. The beautiful son of the river-god Cephisus. He rejected the love of the Nymph Echo (q.v.\ and Aphrodite punished him for this by inspiring him with a passion for the reflexion of himself which he saw in the water of a fountain. He pined away in the desire for it: to see one's reflexion in the water was hence considered as a pre­sage of death. The flower of the same name, into which he was changed, was held to be a symbol of perishableness and death, and was sacred to Hades, the divinity of the world below. PersephSne had just gathered

* NARCISSUS.

(Muial painting from Pompeii. Naples Museum.)

Nauarchus (Gr. nauarchos = commander of a ship). The Spartan term for the com­mander of the fleet, chosen for one year-also a general term for the captain of a ship, regularly so used in the fleets of the Roman Empire.

Naucrarlse. Administrative districts at Athens dating from prehistoric times; they were 48 in number, 12 from each of the old phj/lce. Each of them was obliged to fur­nish two horsemen and a ship towards the army and navy. The naucrari, who were at their head, seem to have formed a college or corporate body, who occupied themselves especially with all military and financial affairs, while current business was managed by the prytdneis, whose office was the Prytaneion. Clisthe.nes raised their num­ber to 50, 5 from each of the 10 new phylce, and probably restricted in functions to the services to the State, and especially the fleet. It is likely that they were given up after the fleet had been increased by The-mistocles; their place was probably taken by the hierarchies. (See leitourgia.)

Naumachlae. A name given by the Romans to contests between ships, repre­sented for the amusement of the people, and commemorating naval engagements famous in history. The first representation of this kind was given by Cgesar in b.c. 46 in a basin dug out for this purpose on the Cam-pits Martins, on which occasion a Tyriau

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