The Ancient Library

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seven-stringed lyre to a full octave, with­out increasing the number of the strings. This he did by adding one more string at the upper end of the scale, and taking away the next string but one. Aristotle, Prob­lems, xix 32.]

Thus arose the octachord or octave, and at last, after various additions, the follow­ing scale of notes was formed :

and continued to be satisfied with a system of scales (" harmonies ") sung by the sole guidance of the ear. Amongst the Canonici were philosophers such as ph!lolaus. akchytas, democr!tus, plato, and aris­totle. lasus of Hermione, the master of Pindar, is mentioned as the first author of a theoretical work on music. The " har­monic " aristoxenus (5.^.) of Tarentum, a

From the lowest 6 onwards, this scale was divided into tetrachords in such a way that the fourth note was always also regarded as the first of the following tetra-chord ; [the intervals between the sounds of the tetrachord were, in ascending order, semi-tone, tone, tone]. This sequence was called the diatonic genus. Besides this there was also the chromatic, the tetra­chords of which were as follows, b c Vd e, e f frg a [the intervals in this case were semi-tone, semi-tone, tone and a half]. Thirdly there was the enharmonic, the tetrachord of which [had for its intervals } tone, \ tone, 2 tones, and accordingly] cannot be expressed in modern notation. (See also p. 707.]

With regard to the musical instruments it may be mentioned that only stringed instruments (cp. especially cithara and lyra) and the flute (q.v.), which closely resembled our clarionet, were employed in music proper; and that the other instru­ments, such as trumpets (see salpinx), Pan's pipes (sec syrinx), cymbals (cymb&la], and kettledrums (see tympanum), were not in­cluded within its province.

In proportion to the amount of attention paid to music by the Greeks, it early became the subject of learned research and literary treatment. The philosopher pythagoras occupied himself with musical acoustics; he succeeded in representing numerically the relations of the octave, the fifth, and the fourth. For representing the symphonic relations the Pythagorean school invented the monochord or canon, a string stretched over a sounding board and with a movable bridge, by means of which the string could be divided into different lengths; it was on this account known as the school of the CanOnici as opposed to the Harmonici, who opposed this innovation

pupil of Aristotle, was held by the ancients to be the greatest authority on music; from his numerous works was drawn the greatest part of subsequent musical literature. Of other writers on music we may mention the well-known mathematician euclid, and the great astronomer claudius ptolem^eus, who perfected musical acoustics.

Among the Romans, a native development of music was completely wanting. They had, indeed, an ancient indigenous musical in­strument, the short and slender Latiau flute with four holes ; but their national art of flute-playing was, at an early period, thrown into the background by the Etruscan, which was practised as a profession by foreigners, freedmen, and people of the lowest classes of the Roman population. Among the nine old guilds, said to have been instituted by king Numa, there was one of flute-players (ilbiclnes), who assisted at public sacrifices. With the Greek drama, Greek dramatic music was also introduced ; it was, how­ever, limited to flute-playing (cp. flute). Stringed instruments were not originally known at Rome, and were not frequently employed till after the second Punic War. Indeed, as Greek usages and manners in general gained ground with the beginning of the 2nd century, so also did Greek music. Greek dances and musical entertainments became common at the meals of aristocratic families, and the younger members of re­spectable households received instruction in music as in dancing. Though it was afterwards one of the subjects of higher education, it was never considered a real and effective means of training. Enter­tainments like our concerts became frequent towards the end of the Republic, and formed part of the musical contests insti­tuted by Nero, a great lover of music, in A.D. 60, on the model of the Greek contests.

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