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526-530; of S. Lorenzo Outside the Walls to 577-590; of S. Agnese to 625-638; of the oratory of S. Venantius, the churches of S. Praxedes, S. Cecilia in Trastevere, and S. Maria Navicella, to the 7th century. After the 9th century the art of working in mosaic ceased for awhile in Rome and in Italy in general, to be revived at a later date in the church of S. Cyprian at Murano (1109) and the basilica of St. Mark's at Venice (in and after the llth century), and afterwards at Rome itself. In Sicily, the mosaics of the Cappetta Palatina in the royal palace at Palermo were finished in 1143, while those of the cathedral at Monreale were begun in 1172.
Authorities. Marquardt, Das Privatteben der Romer, 625-632; Bliimner's Techno logic, iii 323-343; Von Rohden on Mosaik in Baumeister's Denkmaler ; Gerspach, La Mosaique.} [J. E. S.]
Moschus. A Greek bucolic poet, who lived in Syracuse about b.c. 150. Four longer and four shorter poems have been handed down as his; they show the greatest elegance of expression without the truth to nature and the dramatic power of his model Theocritus.
Mfithaces. Set' hei.ots.
Muclus Scsev61a (Quintus) was born of a family in which the pontificate and great legal learning had been handed down from father to son. He was a friend of the orator Crassus and his colleague in almost all offices, was made consul in B.C. !*5, and murdered by the Marians in 85. A man of great integrity and wide culture, he combined a profound knowledge of the law with remarkable eloquence. He rendered great service by being the first to reduce the legal materials accumulated in the course of time to a consistent and classified system. This he did in his lost work, De lurS Clvili, in eighteen volumes; it formed the basis for a methodical treatment of law. Among his pupils were Cicero and the lawyer Sulpiclus Rufus (?.«.).
Mulclber. Epithet of Vulcan (3.0.).
Mulleus. See calceus.
Mnlta [wrongly spelt mulcta]. The Roman term for a fine, inflicted either by a magistrate for disobedience or insubordination, or at the motion of an official by the decision of the people at the comltla tribute, or prescribed in laws, wills, etc., in case any one contravened them. It originally consisted in cattle, sheep, or oxen; then, after b.c. 430, the Lex lulm Paplrw permitted the payment in money according to
a fixed scale (a sheep = 10 asses, an ox = 100 asses'). The lowest amount of the multa inflicted by a magistrate in virtue of his office was a sheep; when acts of disobedience were repeated, the fine could be raised to 30 oxen (supr&ma multa}. Againstlieavier penalties, such, in particular, as were imposed by the tribunes of the people on account of political crimes, e.g. when a general had waged war unskilfully or had exceeded the limits of his power, an appeal to the coinitid tributd was granted, and they were decided by that body in the regular legal manner. The fines imposed by the people were always, and those imposed by the magistrates usually, set apart for sacred purposes; otherwise they fell to the ceraAum, as was the rule under the Empire. This also received a part of the penalties fixed by laws, the other was given to the plaintiff. Fines for contravention of the clauses of a will were either paid to the funds of a temple or to the community to which the testator belonged, and at Rome to the cerarium.
Mummlus. A Latin writer of Atellanat (see atellana), after 90 b.c.
Munlclplum. Originally the Roman term for a town the inhabitants of which, called mumcipfs, only possessed part of the rights of Roman citizenship, viz. the private rights of commercium and confibium, while they were excluded from the political rights, the ius suffragii and the ius honorum, the right to elect and to be elected to office. As Roman citizens, they did not serve (like the allies) in cohorts under a prefect, but in the legions under tribunes; they were, however, assigned to legions distinct from the others, since they were not inscribed on the lists of the Roman tribes, and therefore could not be levied in accordance with those lists. After the dissolution of the Latin League in b.c. 338, the allied towns were put into the position of mumcipia.
At first there were two classes of muni-cipia, according as they retained an independent communal constitution or not. The second class, which had no senate, magistrates, or popular assembly of its own, and was governed directly by Rome, consisted of the pr&fecturcK (q.v.}. As the municipia gradually obtained the full rights of citizenship, their nature changed; all persons were now called municipes, who did not belong to the town of Rome by birth, but were full Roman citizens, and hence belonged to a Roman tribe, were registered at Rome, could elect and be elected to office, and served in the Roman legions.