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logographers nourished from about 550 b.c. down to the Persian Wars. Their latest representatives extend, however, down to the time of the Peloponnesian War. When true history arose with Herodotus, they soon lapsed into oblivion, whence they were rescued in Alexandrian days. Many of the works ascribed to them were however believed to be spurious, or at least interpolated. We possess fragments only of a few. The larger number of the historic writers who are described as logographers were Asiatic Greeks, e.g. cadmus of Miletus, author of a history of the founding of Miletus and the colonization of Ionia (he -lived about 540 b.c., and was considered the first writer of historic prose); further, DIONYSlus of Miletus, a writer of Persian history, hecat^eus (q.v.) of Miletus (550-476), xanthus of Sardis (about 496), a writer of Lydian history, HELLANICUS (q.v.) of Lesbos (about 480-400), charon of Lam-psacus (about 456), a compiler of Persian history and annals of his native town, phere-CYDES of the Carian island LSrBs (died about 400 b.c.), who lived at Athens, and in his great collection of myths in ten books treated chiefly of the early days of Attica. Some belonged to the colonies in the West, e.g. hippys of Rhegium, at the time of the Persian War the oldest writer on Sicily and Italy. The only representative from Greece itself ia AcuslLAUS of Argos in Bosotia, the author of a genealogical work.
Longlnus (Cassius). A Greek rhetorician, born at Athens about 213 a.d., who studied Neoplatonism at Alexandria, and practised as teacher of philosophy, grammar [i.e. literary criticism], and rhetoric, in his native city, from about 260, until the accomplished queen Zenobia of Palmyra summoned him as minister to her court. As he persuaded her to resist the Roman yoke, the emperor Aurelian caused him to be executed after Zenobia's overthrow in 273. He possessed such an extent of learning, that Eunapius called him a living library and a walking museum. His versatility is proved by compositions on philosophy, grammar, rhetoric, chronology, and literature. Of these, only fragments are extant, for example, the introduction to a commentary on Hephsestion's handbook of metres, and a short Rhetoric incomplete at the beginning. A brief treatise On the Sublime, commonly ascribed to him, is more probably to be assigned to an unknown writer about the Christian era. It treats and illustrates by classic examples the
characteristics of the lofty style from a philosophical and aesthetic point of view. It is written in a vigorous manner.
Longus, who probably lived in the 3rd century a.d., was the author of a Greek pastoral romance, Daphnis and CMOS, in four books. It is considered the best of all ancient romances which have come down to us, on account of its deep and natural feeling, its grace of narrative, and the comparative purity and ease of the language. It has often been imitated by Italian, French, German, and English writers. [The rare translation by John Day of the French version of Amyot was reprinted in 1890.]
Lorlca. (1) The leathern corselet of the Roman legionary. It consisted of thongs (lOi-a) of shoe-leather faced with metal. These were fastened one upon another in such a way that they formed a covering for the body with two shoulder-pieces. Below the latter a plate of iron 9^ inches square, waa placed over the region of the heart
ROMAN T.EOIONARY WEARING THE LORICA. (Arch of Sevcru<O
(see cut). Of the early citizen-soldiers, the more wealthy wore also coats of chain-armour (lorica hamata), and corselets of mail (lorica squatnata), in which the joints were further covered with metal plates; the latter were also worn by the praetorians in imperial times.
(2) The breastworks on walls and on redoubts.
Lot, Election by. See officials.
Love, God of, see eros ; Goddess of, see aphrodite and venus.