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On this page: Lochagos – Lochos – Logeion – Logistae – Logographi

361

LOCHAGOS——LOGOGRAPHI.

the style of his narrative than upon his thoroughness as a historic inquirer. His preliminary studies were inadequate, and his knowledge of Roman law, and still more of the military system of Rome, was in­sufficient. He was content to select what seemed to him the most probable and reasonable statement from the authorities which happened to be familiar and acces­sible to him, without regard to completeness, and without severely scrutinising their value,—a method which necessarily led to numerous inaccuracies and serious errors. Primarily, his great aim was not critical research into the history of his country. He desired rather by a lively and brilliant narrative, which should satisfy the more exacting taste of the time, to rekindle the flagging patriotism of his countrymen, and to raise his politically and socially degraded contemporaries to the level of their ances­tors' exploits. And his narrative in fact deserves the fullest admiration, especially for its descriptions of events and the actors in them, and for the speeches which are inserted in the work. The latter show his rhetorical training in all its brilliance. His language is choice and tasteful, although in details it marks a decline from the strictly classical standard. Asinius Pollio, in allusion to the author's birth­place, charged it with a certain patdtt-nltas. This can only mean a provincial departure from the peculiar language of the metropolis, which is to us no longer perceptible. Livy's work enjoyed the greatest renown down to the latest days of Roman literature, and has been the great mine of information for knowledge of the past to all succeeding generations.

L6chagos (Greek). The commander of a ISchOs (q.v.).

Lochos. The Greek designation of a body of foot soldiers. Among the Spartans, it denoted in early times the largest divisions into which the whole population capable of i bearing arms was grouped. Each of these [according to Thucydides v 68, cp. 66] com­prised four pentgmstyps of four InOmOtltr. each [an en5m6VUi containing on an average thirty-two men]. The name also denoted the individuals comprised therein ; later, : [Xenophon, Rep. Lac. ii 4], it was the name of the four sub-divisions of a m<5ra (q.v.). ' In Greek mercenary troops, a lochos was a company of 100 men under a separate commander. Several of these companies were united under the superior command of a strategics (q.v.).

! L5gei6n (" speaking-place "), see theatre Ldgistae (" auditors of accounts "). The name given at Athens to a board consisting originally of thirty, subsequently of ten members, who, in conjunction with another board, the ten euthyni, and their twenty assessors, received from magistrates, at the expiry of their term of office, the i accounts of their administration. (See \ euthyna.) This was especially important with those magistrates through whose hands public money passed. Both boards-were originally chosen by show of hands ; later by lot. One member was elected from each phyle, the assessors of the euthyni were appointed by free choice. The logistce were the supreme authority to whom out­going magistrates submitted their accounts. The euthyni examined the several details, notified, when necessary, those who were liable, and returned the accounts to the logistce with a report on their merits. Magistrates who had nothing to do with public money only gave an assurance to the logistce that they had received and paid nothing. If the accounts were approved, and no charge was brought after the public proclamation by the logistai, they gave the magistrate his discharge. In the other alternative they referred the case to a court of justice in which they were themselves presidents. The prosecution was entrusted to ten synegori or counsel for the State, who were chosen by lot and sat with the logistce. The final decision rested with the Heliastic court. (See heli^ea.)

Ldg&gTaphi (Gr. logographoi, i.e. writers in prose). The name given to the oldest Greek historians, who by their first at­tempts at disquisitions in prose marked the transition from narrative poetry to prose history. As in the case of epic poetry, so these earliest historical writings emanated from Ionia, where the first attempts at an exposition of philosophic reflexions in prose were made at about the same time by Pherecydes, Anaximander, and AnaximSues; and, in both cases alike, it was the Ionic dialect that was used. This class of writ­ing long preserved in its language the poetic character which it inherited from its origin in the epic narrative. It was only by degrees that it approached the tone of true prose. It confined itself absolutely to the simple telling of its story, which was largely made up of family and local traditions. It never classified its materials from a more elevated point of view, or scrutinised them with critical acumen The

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