The Ancient Library

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sometimes oval, sometimes angular, with a hole in the top for pouring in the oil, often shut with a lid. (2) The wick-holder, a projecting socket (Gr. myxa; Lat. rostrum).

(1 and 2) greek terracotta lamps. (Staekelberg's Grdfter dtr Hellenen, taf. Hi.)

Sometimes there was a second hole on the surface of the oil-vessel, through which the wick could be pushed up by means of a needle. If the lamp was to be carried, it

images of gods, stories from mythology, scenes of warlike and domestic life, of the circus and the amphitheatre, animals, arabesques, etc. (fig. 3). Some lamps are themselves formed in the shape of gods, men, or objects of different kinds (e.g. fig. 3, b, i). The bronze lamps are specially dis­tinguished by elegance and variety. The opening through which the oil was poured in being small, they had vials specially made for the purpose, with thin necks and a narrow inouth. Special instruments were made for trimming and pulling up the wick • little tongs, or hooked pins, which were sometimes fastened by a chain to the handle. No method of preventing the smoking of the lamps was known to the ancients. Lanterns were made of trans-


Gnhl and Koner, fig. 4ft).

a Museo Borbonico, IV Iriii j /, g, K \, ib VI xlvii, six ; b, c, d, e. I, m, Passerius. Lucerna fictihs, I 30, 27, II 6.1 fl, £1 29, 96; k, Bellori, Jntichfl Lucerne.

parent materials, such as horn, oiled linen, and bladders: the use of glass came in later. (See also candelabrum.)

Linns (Gr. Linos). A hero representing probably a god of the old Greek nature-worship ; his death, symbolic of the flag-fing vegetation during the heat of the og-days, was hymned in widely known laments. The lament for Linus is men­tioned as early as Homer [/(. xviii 570]. In Argos an ancient festival of Linus was long continued. Here he was said to be the son of Apollo and the princess Psftmathe. Born in secret and exposed by his mother the child grew up at a shepherd's among the lambg, until torn in pieces by dogs. Psamathe, however, on the news of what

had a handle; if to be hung up, it was furnished with one or more ears, to which chains were attached. There were lamps with two, three, four, and sometimes as many as twenty wicks; these were hung up on the roof or set up on a high stand. The material of ancient lamps was clay, mostly of the red sort, and the manufacture of clay lamps formed a principal branch of Italian pottery. (Greek lamps of this material are represented in figs. 1, 2.) The next in frequency is bronze; it is not so common to find lamps of other metals, alabaster or glass. The numerous Roman lamps still preserved generally exhibit ornaments in relief of the most various hinds on the suriace and on the handle:

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