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348

LEITOURGiA.

after the manner of the Greek phalanx, without intervals in its line and with a division of troops in its rear. In its equip­ment there was an important alteration beginning with the second half of the 3rd century, when ail the soldiers of the legion carried long swords (spathce), and the first five cohorts two plla, one larger and another smaller, while the last five had lanc.lce, or javelins serving as missiles, and fitted with a leather loop to help in hurling them with precision.

The military music of the Romans was provided by tublclnes (see tuba), cornlclncs (see cornicen), bad-natures (see. bucina), and liticmes (see lituus, 2). On standards or ensigns, see signum and vexillum. On levy, oath of allegiance, pay, and discharge from service, see dilectus, sacramentum, stipendium, and missio. The accompany­ing cut (from the Column of Trajan) repre­sents the soldiers of a legion on the march,

ROMAN LEGIONARIES ON THE MARCH.

(Relief from the Column of Trajan, Rome.)

carrying their helmets close to the right shoulder, and their kit at the top of a pole resting on the left.

Leitourgla (i.e. " service performed for the public "). A term applied at Athens to either an ordinary or extraordinary service, which the State imposed on its wealthier citizens in accordance with a regular rota­tion. The ordinary services, which citizens whose property amounted to more than three talents [£600] were required to per­form, are: (1) the CtiOrffjla, the most ex-

pensive service of this kind, involving the equipment of a chorus (q.v.) for its musical competitions at public festivals, which were accompanied by theatrical and musical per­formances. (2) The GymndslarcMa, which imposed the obligation of training in the Gymnasia the competitors for the gymnastic contests, supplying them with proper diet while they were in training, and providing at the games themselves for the requisite arrangement and decoration of the scene of the contest. The most expensive type of this form of service was the lampddarchia, the equipment of the torch race (q.v.), which in one instance [recorded in Lysias Or. 21 § 3] cost twelve mines [£40]. (3) The Archithedrla, or superintendence of the sacred embassies (theories) sent to the four great national festivals, or to Delos and other holy places. In this case the State contributed part of the expense. There were other leitourgiai confined to the separate tribes and demes, such as the entertainment of members of the clan on festal occasions.

The most expensive of all was the extraordinary leitourgia called the trier-archlcij which was necessary only [or rather mainly] in times of war. This involved the equipment of a ship of war, and was required of the wealthiest citizens only. Before the Persian Wars the equipment of the forty-eight to fifty ships of the Athenian navy of that time devolved on the naucrdrice (q.v.). When the number of the fleet was increased, the necessary number of trierarchs-was nominated in each year by the strMegi. The State provided the vessel, i.e. the hull and mast; and every trierarch had to fit out this vessel with the necessary equip­ment, to keep it in readiness for the year, and to man it with a complete crew of oarsmen and others. The State supplied pay and provision for the crew, though the sum paid did not always suffice for the purpose; it afterwards supplied the furni­ture of the vessel also. To lighten the expense, which amounted to between forty mince and a talent (£133-£200), it became allowable, about 411 b.c., for two persons to share it. Afterwards, in 358, twenty symmOrlfK (q.v.) were instituted, i.e. com­panies consisting of sixty citizens each, with a committee of the 300 wealthiest citizens at their head ; the 300 distributed the expense over the individual symnidrur in such sort that the cost of a single trireme was shared by a greater or less number of citizens. Lastly, about b.c. 340, the inci-

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