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Augustus decreed that the opinions of jurists authorized by the head of the State were to have the validity of law. It was from the jurists as advisers of the emperor that all legislation now proceeded. They had access to all the highest offices of the court and of the State. Accordingly the men of the highest gifts and character betook themselves naturally to this profession, and even introduced into the laws an increased unity, consistency, and systematic order. Under Augustus two jurists were pre-eminent, Quintus Antistius LdbSO and Gains Atelus Cdpito, the founders of the two later schools, named, after their pupils Sempronius Proculus and Masurius Sablnus, the Proculiani and Sablni respectively. Labeo sought to extend his professional knowledge, whilst Capito held fast to the traditions of former jurists.
The first scientific collection of laws was made under Hadrian by the Sabinian lawyer Salvius lulianus, with his Edictum Perpetuum, a classified collection of the praetorian edicts from the times of the Republic. (See edictum.) Sextus Pomponius, his somewhat younger contemporary, com-
osed amongst other things a history of the iw till the time of Hadrian.
Under the Antonines jurisprudence was able to claim a remarkable representative in the Asiatic Gaiiis, but it received its completion and conclusion in the first half of the 3rd century a.d., through ^Emilius Pa,plnidnus,Domitius Ulpianus,&ud lulius Paulus. After their time there were no jurists of geeat and original capacity. In the 4th century literary activity revived again, but confined itself to the collection of legal authorities, especially that of imperial ordinances. Thus the Codex Theo-dosi&nus, finished in a.d. 438, contains an ' official record of all the enactments decreed j by the emperors from the time of Con- i stantine. Under Justinian I (527-565 a.d.) the last and most complete Roman collection of laws was made, under the name of the Corpus Juris Civilis (q.v.).
Justinlanus. See corpus jubis civilis.
Justinus. A Latin author, who composed, probably in the 2nd century a.d., an abstract, still extant, of the Universal History of Pompeius Trogus (Trogi Pompel Histdrtarum PhilippicCLrum EpitOma). It i enjoyed a great reputation in the Middle Ages. Of the circumstances of his life nothing is known.
Jnstltlum. The term by which the ! Romans designated a legal vacation, or |
cessation from business in the courts of
justice, in the sittings of the senate, and even in private life, when all the shops were closed. This took place on extraordinary occasions, such as famine, or during the perils of war, and, under the Empire, on the death of a member of the imperial family. It was decreed by the highest magistrate present in Rome, subject to the approval of the senate. When the occasion had passed by, it was removed by a special edict on the part of the magistrate.
Juturna. An old Latin goddess of fountains, sometimes said to have been beloved by Jupiter, from whom she received the dominion over all the rivers and waters of Latium. She is also called the wife of Janus, and by him the mother of Fontus, the god of springs. Vergil makes her the sister of Turnus of Ardea, king of the Rutfili, probably in allusion to a spring named after her in the country between Ardea and Lavmium. Besides the pond of Juturna in the Forum at Rome, there was also a spring bearing her name in the Campus Martius, the water of which was considered sacred and salutary, and was therefore employed in all sacrificial rites and services, and also used by sick people. On January llth, the anniversary of the day on which her temple was erected in the Campus Martius by Lutatius Catulus, all workmen engaged on aqueducts and the like celebrated the Juturnalia. As a goddess who dispenses water, she was, together with Vulcan, specially invoked at the breaking out of fires. [Iuturna = Dtuturna.]
JftvSnalia (DScimus lunius). The great Roman satirist, born at Aquluum, a town of the Volscians, about 47 a.d. According to the accounts of his life which have come down to us, he was the son, either real or adopted, of a wealthy freed-man, and spent the first half of his life in Rome engaged in declamatory exercises, more for pleasure than as a preparation for the Forum or the schools. He continued there until he becavne a knight. In an inscription of the time of Domitian he is named as duumvir and as a flamen of Vespasian in his native town, and also as tribune of the first Dalmatian cohort. The command of a cohort is also specified in the accounts already mentioned. According to these he was sent into banishment under the pretence of military distinction, because in a satirical composition he had taken the liberty of denouncing the political influence of a favourite comedian of the emperor.