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but a few, to the procedure by formula. The formula was a document written out by the praetor, in which he, after hearing the parties, summed up the points of the accusation and the replies of the accused, appointed the judge, and gave him the materials for investigation and judgment. The proceedings in iudicio were then opened with the production of &K formula. The question of the debt being settled, the judge proceeded to make a valuation of the object in dispute, in case a definite amount had not been mentioned in the formula. On the procedure in case of default, see contumacia. The judgment was irreversible. It was only in certain exceptional «asea, notably if it appeared that any deception or force had been employed, that the magistrate who had appointed the judge, or his successor in office, could set it aside by restttutlo in integrum. If the com-demned party refused to make the payment, the magistrate who had prepared the 'case could order personal arrest or seizure of goods. (See manus inieotio and bonorum emptio.)
The only weapon against abuse of judicial authority in the republican age was the right of appeal to a magistrate with the power of veto. (See appellatio.)
The system of civil jurisdiction continued to exist in the imperial period, though with many modifications in detail, until the 3rd century a.d. After that, the exceptional procedure (extra ordincm} in which the magistrate superintended the case till its conclusion and pronounced judgment at the end of it, became the usual one. The emperor, as supreme judge, had the power of deciding every case, criminal or otherwise, if his decision was appealed to. Further, he could interfere by his decree during the course of the trial, and either
quash the verdict himself, or lay the appeal for decision before an authority constituted by himself for the purpose. In later times this authority was the prcefectus urbi. A further appeal from this authority back to the emperor was allowed.
Judlcium. The Latin name for a -court: indicium pvpuli, a court in which the populus acted as indices. Indicium prlvatwn, a civil, indicium publicum, a criminal court; indicium domestlcum, a family court. (See judicial procedure.)
Jugerum. The unit of superficial measure among the Romans. A rectangle 240 Roman feet in length and 120 feet broad = 28,800 Roman square feet = rather more
than half an English acre of 43,560 square feet. Two hundred iugerct form one cen-turia [about 132 acres]. Julian Calendar. See calendar. Julianas. (1) Salvius. An eminent Roman jurist, born in Africa, who lived in the days of Hadrian. Besides many original works which were long held in high esteem, he compiled at the command of the emperor in 131 A.D., a systematic collection of Edicts of the Praetors, beginning with the republican time (edictum perpltuum). This was the first scientific collection of Roman legal documents. Numerous fragments of his works are quoted in the Digest. Cp. corpus juris civilis (2).
(2) Flavins Claudius, " the Apostate." Born at Constantinople A.D. 331 ; he was the son of Julius Constantius, a brother of Constantine the Great. In spite of hia early monastic education, he was so strongly prepossessed against the Christian religion owing to the murderous deeds of his own family, the persecutions he suffered at the hands of his cousin Constantius, and his own intercourse with the most renowned Sophists both in Nlcomedia and at Athens, that, on his elevation to the imperial throne in 361, he attempted to drive out Christianity, and to restore Paganism on the foundation of Neo-Platonic philosophy. His attempts were however cut short by his death in the war against the Persians. We still possess eight essays written by him in Greek, in the form of speeches ; seventy-eight letters of the most ' varied contents, valuable as throwing light on his character and his aims; and two satirical writings : (i) The Caesars, or. the Banquet, a brilliant criticism on the Roman emperors, from Caesar downwards, in the form of Varro's Menippean satires; (ii) the Mlsopogon (Beard-Hater), a satire directed against the inhabitants of Antioch, who had cast ridicule on his beard and his philosophic garb. Of his work directed against the Christians and their religion, which he composed in Antioch before the expedition against the Persians, only extracts and fragments survive. Julian is one of the cleverest, most cultivated and elegant writers of the period after the birth of Christ.
Julius Capltolinus. A Roman historian. (See scriptores historic augusts.)
Julius Valerius. The Latin translator of the romance of pseudo-Callisthenes on Alexander the Great. (See callisthenes.)
Junlus Cordus. A Roman historian. (See scriptores histori/e augusts.)