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being instructed by PrSdieus, ProtagSras, Theramenes, and (above all) Gorglas; his character was also moulded by the influence of Socrates, although he never belonged to the more restricted circle of his pupils.

Bashfulness and a weak voice prevented him from taking part in public life. After the fall of the Thirty, as his father had lost his means in the calamitous years that alosed the Peloponnesian War, he turned his attention to composing forensic speeches for others. After having taught rhetoric at Chios [possibly about 404 b.c.], he re­turned to Athens in 403, and there opened a regular school of rhetoric about 392. It was largely attended by both Athenians and non-Athenians, and brought him in considerable wealth. The total number of his pupils has been given at one hundred, including Timotheus, the son of Conon, the orators Isseus, Hyperides, and Lycurgus, and the historians Ephorus and Theopompus. Isocrates also had friendly relations with foreign princes, especially with Evagoras of Cyprus and his son Nicocles, who loaded him with favours. He kept himself com­pletely aloof from any personal share in the public life of his day ; yet he attempted to influence the political world, not only with­in the narrow bounds of his native land, but also throughout the whole of Greece, by a series of rhetorical declamations, not in­tended to be delivered, but only to be read. This he did in the first place in his Pdnf-gijricus, which he published in 380 b.c., after spending ten or (according to another account) as many as fifteen years over its preparation. This is a kind of festal oration eulogising the services of Athens to Greece, exhorting the Spartans peacefully to share the supremacy with Athens, and calling on the Greeks to lay aside all internal dissen­sions and attack the barbarians with their united strength. In the ninetieth year of his age, in a discourse addressed to Philip, in 346 b.c., he endeavours to induce that mon­arch to carry out his policy by reconciling all the Greeks to one another, and leading their united forces against the Persians. Other discourses relate to the internal politics of Athens. Thus, in the ArlQpdgitlcus, he recommends his fellow citizens to get rid of the existing weaknesses in their political constitution by returning to the democracy as founded by Solon and reconstituted by Clisthenes, and by reinstating the Areo­pagus as the supreme tribunal of censor­ship over public decorum and morality. He retained his mental and bodily powers un-

impaired to an advanced age, and in his ninety-eighth year completed the Pdnathf.-ndlcus, a discourse in praise of Athens. He lived to see the total wreck of all his hopes for a regeneration of Greece, and died b.c. 338, a few days after the battle of Chseronea, He is said to have died of voluntary star­vation, owing to his despair at the down­fall of Greek liberty; [but this account of his death, familiarised by Milton in his fifth English sonnet, must be considered as doubtful.]

There were sixty compositions bearing his name known to antiquity, but less than half that number were considered genuine. Of the twenty-one which have come down to us, the first, the Letter to Demonlcus, is often regarded as spurious, [but there is no reason to doubt the genuineness of nine of the ten other Letters. It is only the letter prefixed to the nine in the older editions that is not genuine, having been really written by Theophylact Simocatta early in the 7th century a.d.] Of the speeches, six are forensic orations, written to be delivered by others; the rest are declamations, chiefly on political subjects. By his mastery of style, Isocrates had a far-reaching influence on all subsequent Greek prose, which is not confined to oratorical composition alone. His chief strength lies in a careful choice of expression, not only in his vocabulary, but also in the rhythmical formation of his flowing periods, in a skilful use of the figures of speech, and in all that lends euphony to language. [Even in Latin, the oratorical prose of Cicero is, on its formal side, founded chiefly on that of Isocrates. Modern literary prose has, in its turn, been mainly modelled on that of Cicero, and thus the influence of Isocrates has endured to the present day.)

isotella (" equality in tax and tribute "). At Athens, the position of partial equality with the citizens which was granted to the more deserving of the mStceci (q.v.).

Isthmian Games. One of the four great national festivals of the Greeks, held on the Isthmus of Corinth, in a grove of pine trees sacred to PSseidon, near the shrines of the Isthmian Poseidon and of Mellcertes. From b.c. 589, they were held in the first month of spring, in the second and fourth years of each Olympiad. According to legend, the Isthmian Games were originally funeral games in memory of Melicertes (q.v.) ; another tradition relates that they were established by Theseus either in honour of Poseidon, or in commemoration of his vie-

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