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On this page: Infamia – Inheritance

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1NFAMIA——INHERITANCE.

of these divinities could be passed over, if the prayer was to receive a favourable answer. Only those portions of the collec­tion were made public which bore direct reference to private life ; prayers at mar­riages, at births, for a blessing on the children at different times of life, and for the beginning of all kinds of work, espe­cially agriculture. (The names of the gods of earliest childhood were as follows: Potlna and Educa, who taught the child when weaned to eat and drink; Cuba, who protected the child when taken out of the cradle and put to bed; Ossipdga, who strengthened the bones; Carna, who strengthened the flesh; Levana, who helped it to rise from the ground; StatSnus, Stdtlllnus, or dea Stiltlna, who taught it to stand ; Ateona and Adeona, who sup­ported its first walking; FSbullnus, Fan-nus, who assisted it to talk.) All collec­tive occupations, all parts of the house, all different spots had their particular gods, who were invoked in these forms of prayer. Often the various names only indicate the different characteristics of a single divinity; eg. Maia was invoked under the names of Bond, Fauna, Ops, and Fdtua. In course of time the different attributes came to be regarded as separate divinities. [The names of the above divini­ties are quoted from Varro, Antiquitates Rerum Divinarum, by Tertullian, Ad Nat. ii 11, 15 (and De Anima 37, 39); and by Augustine, De Civitate Dei, iv 11, 21 (and iv 8, 10; vi 9, vii 23).)

Infamta. The Latin term for the loss of certain political rights ; resembling, but not identical with, dSm'inutio capUis (q.v.~). It was the direct consequence of dishonour­able conduct, or of some shameless act (such as a widow not observing the usual year of mourning, bigamy, bankruptcy, 'going on the stage, or becoming a gladiator, pandering, or becoming a prostitute, etc.). It also resulted from a condemnation for felony, robbery, fraud, embezzlement of a deposit, whether belonging to a society or a ward, or in fact for any criminal offence. The infamis was expelled from his tribe, lost his vote and his capacity for filling pub­lic offices (ims suffrayil and ius honOrum), and could not appear in a court of law either on his own account or on behalf of another. (Cp. atimia.)

Inheritance. (1) Greek (Athens). If a person died intestate, leaving sons, all of equal birthright, and none of them dis­inherited, the sons inherited the property

in equal parts, the eldest probably receiv-| ing the same share as the rest. If there were daughters, they were provided for by dowries, which, in case they were divorced or childless after marriage, went back to the remaining heirs. If a man had no sons of his own, he usually adopted a son to continue the family and the religious worship connected with it. If he had daughters he would marry one of them to the adopted son; in this case the chief share of the inheritance would fall to this married daughter and her husband, the rest receiving dowries. If there were only daughters surviving, the succession passed to them. In such a case the next of kin had a legal right to one of the heiresses, (SpiclerOs) and could claim to marry her, even if she had married some one else before receiving the inheritance. And poor heiresses, on the other hand, had a legal claim on their nearest of kin either for marriage, or for a provision suitable to their circumstances. If a man had married an heiress, he was bound by custom and tradition, if he had sons, to name one as heir to the property which had come with his wife, and thus to restore the house of the maternal grandfather. Children born out of wedlock were illegitimate, and had no claim on the father's estate. If a man died intestate, leaving no heirs either of his body or adopted, his nearest relations in the male line inherited, and in default of these, those in the female line as far as the chil­dren of first cousins. Any one thinking he had a legal claim to the inheritance made an application to the archon to hand it over to him. The application was posted up in public, and read out in the following ecdesia. The question was then asked whether any one disputed the claim, or raised a counter-claim. If not, the archon assigned the inheritance to the claimant; otherwise the matter was decided by a law­suit. Even after the assignment of an inheritance, it might be disputed in the lifetime of the holder, and for five years after his death. The claim of the nearest relation to an heiress was in the same way lodged with the archon and ratified before the assembly.

(2) Roman. If a man died intestate leav­ing a wife and children of his body or adopted, they were his heirs (sul heredes}. But this did not apply to married daughters who had passed into the nuinus of their hus-! bands, or the children who had been freed by emancipation from the potestas of their

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