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of Silence and Secrecy. Afterwards, in the time when mysteries were in vogue, his worship was widely extended among the Greeks, and also among the Romans.
House. The Greek house (see plan, fig. 1) was divided into two chief parts, one of which was assigned to the men (andronltis) and the other to the women (gynaikOnltls or gynaikeidn). The women's division was situated at the back of the house, and sometimes in the upper story if there was one.
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(1) PLAN OF OLDEST TYPK OK GREEK HOUSE WITH ONE COUKT.
(Designed by Guhl.)
a, a, a. Workrooms for the maid-servants, b, Bedroom of the master of the house. c, Hull.
d, d, d, d, d, d, d, d, Store-rooms, bedrooms, efc.
e, Courtyard. /, Passnge. 9, g, 9. 9, Shops.
The door of the house opened inwards. It was placed sometimes in a line with the facade, sometimes in a small recess called the prSthyrOn or pr6pylai6n. In front of this there often stood an altar belonging to the house and consecrated to Apollo Agyieus, or the god of streets. In the interior, on both sides of the vestibule, were the doorkeeper's room and other chambers for work and business. The vestibule led into an open court (mile) surrounded on three sides with columns. In the middle of this was the altar of Zeus HerkeiOs, the
patron deity of domestic life. At the sides were chambers for eating and sleeping, storerooms, and cells for slaves, which, like the front rooms, opened into the court. But the slaves sometimes lived in an upper story, co-extensive with the whole house. On the side of the court opposite the vestibule there were no columns, but two pilasters at some distance from each other marked the en trance of a hall called prostas or parastas, which measured in breadth two-thirds of the distance between the pilasters. Here the family met at their common meals and common sacrifices; here, too, in all probability stood the hearth or sanctuary of Hestia. On one side of the parastas wras the thdlam6s or sleeping room for the master and mistress of the house. On the other side was the aniphlthdlamos, where the daughters probably slept. In the under wall of the parastas was a door called mStaulds or misaulSs, which led into the workroom of the female servants. Large houses had a second court, pSristylOn, entirely surrounded by columns. The roof of the Greek house was generally, though not always, flat; the rooms were mostly lighted through the doors which opened into the court.
The ancient Roman dwelling house (fig. 2) consisted of a quadrangular court called atrium (from ater, black), because the walls were blackened by the smoke from the hearth. The atrium was entered by the door of the house, and was the common meeting place for the whole family. It was lighted by an opening in the tiled roof, which was four-sided and sloped inwards. This opening was called the compluvium, and served both as a chimney for the hearth and as an inlet for the rain, which fell down into the impluvlum, a tank sunk in the floor beneath. There was also, in more ancient times, a subterranean cistern (putSus) into which the rain out of the impluvium was collected. But in later times the water was carried off by pipes underground. At the back of iheimpluvium was the hearth with the Penates. At the side of the atrium was the room used for cooking, for meals, and for sacrifices. In the wall fronting the entrance was the marriage-bed and the master's money-chest. The mistress of the house sat in the atrium with her maids, spinning, weaving, and generally superintending the household. It was in the atrium that the family received their clients and friends, that the dead were laid out in state, and memorials of the de-