The Ancient Library

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an attitude of independence towards the emperor, and excused himself from accept­ing the tempting offer of Augustus to enter his service as private secretary and to form one of his suite. But he did not entirely decline to carry out his wishes. It was by his desire that (about b.c. 17) he composed, for the festival of the Secular Games, the hymn to Apollo and Diana, known as the Carmen Soeculdrf.. He also celebrated the victories of the emperor's step-sons, Tiberius and Drusus, in several Odes (b.c. 15), which he published with some others as & fourth book of Odes (about 13 b.c.) As Augustus had complained that Horace had made no mention of him in his earlier Epistles, the poet addressed to him a com­position which stands first in the second book of Epistles, probably published shortly before his death. The famous Epistula dd Pisones, commonly called the Ars Poetica, is often reckoned as the third epistle of the second book [but probably belongs to an earlier date]. The poet died 27th November, b.c. 8, and was buried on the Esquiline, near to his recently deceased friend, Maecenas.

Horace, as he was himself aware, is not a poet who soars to lofty heights; on the contrary his nature is essentially reflec­tive, and with him taste and fancy are always under the control of reason. In his lyrical poems he began with more or less free imitations of Greek models, and gra­dually advanced to independent compositions in the Greek form. Their merits do not

art with which both diction and metre are handled. In the poems of a higher style which he composed by desire of Augustus, or under the influence of the times in which he lived, the expression rises to actual loftiness, but the spirit of deliberate purpose is generally prominent. He succeeds best in those of his Odes in which, following his own bent, without any external prompting, he treats of some bright and simple theme, such as love or friend­ship. His personality reflects itself most vividly in his Satires and in his Epistles, which often have a similar aim. Follow­ing the method of Lucilius, he here gives his personal impressions of social and literary matters in a form that is more natural, and at the same time more artistic, than his predecessor's, and in a style that approaches the language of everyday life. At first his Satires, like his Epodes, were not without a pungency corresponding to a bitterness of feeling due to the circumstances of his life; but as his temper became calmer, they assume a more genial and less personal complexion. In the Epistles, the poet shows himself the exponent of a mild^ if not very deep, philosophy of life. From an early date Horace's poems were used in Roman schools as a text-book, and were-expounded by Roman scholars, especially by Acrou and Porphyrio (q.v., 6).

Horse. The goddesses of order in nature, who cause the seasons to change in their regular course, and all things to come into


(Paris, Louvre.)

consist in warmth of feeling or depth oi thought, but in the perspicuity of their plan, the evenness of their execution, and the

being, blossom and ripen at the appointed time. In Homer, who gives them neither genealogy nor names, they are mentioned

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