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On this page: Hippodamus – Hippodrome – Hippolyte – Hippolytus – Hippomenes – Hipponax – Hippothoon – Hippotoxotae – Hippys – Hirtius

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HIPPODAMUS——HIRT1US.

The daughter of CEnomaux and the wife of Pelops (q.v.).

(2) A daughter of Atrax, one of the Lapithse. It was at her marriage with Pirlthflus (q.v.), that the combat between the Centaurs and Lapithse took place.

Hippodamus. A Greek Sophist, born at Miletus in the second half of the 5th cen­tury b.c. He was the first inventor of a system of laying out towns on geometrical principles. This was carried out, under his direction, in the laying out of the Piraeus, the harbour-town of Athens, and also at the building of Thurii (B.C. 444) and of Rhodes (408); it was also used in subse­quent times in the foundation of new towns. Hippodrome (Hipp6dr6mos). The Greek name for the racecourse for horses and chariots. It was about 400 yards long and 125 broad. The two long sides were meant for spectators. At one of the narrow ends was the starting-point; the other end was of semi-circular form. In front of the middle of the latter was the goal; at Olympia a round altar of TaraxippOs (possibly a demon who terrified horses). The drivers had to pass round this after they had driven down one of the long sides; then they turned back and went up the other long side to a second goal, situated near the starting-point. At Olympia this goal bore a statue of Hippodameia. Here they turned round and drove back again. Racing chariots with full-grown horses had to cover this circuit twelve times; and with young horses (according to a later custom) eight times. The name of Hippodrome was also given to the race-courses laid out in Grecian countries in the time of the Romans, after the pattern of the Roman circus (q.v.). The most famous of these was that at Byzantium, which was begun by Septimius Severus, and finished by Constantine.

Hippjlyte. Queen of the Amazons, daughter of Ares and of Otrera; slain in battle by Heracles, when he went at the bidding of Eurystheus to fetch the girdle given her by Ares. (See heracles.)

Hippolytus. Sou of Theseus and of the Amazon AntiSpe. When he spurned the love of his step-mother Phaedra, she slan­dered him to her husband Theseus, who begged his father Poseidon to avenge him. ! While Hippolytus was driving along the seashore, his horses were frightened by a bull sent forth from the water by Poseidon, and he was thrown from his chariot and killed. Phaedra, conscious of the wrong that she had done, killed herself. A later

legend describes Hippolytus as a chaste huntsman and a favourite of Artgmis, who was raised from the dead by jEsculapius, and taken by the goddess to the sacred grove of Diana at Arlcia in Latium, where he was worshipped with the goddess under the name of Virbius. (See diana.)

Hippomenes. The lover of the Boeotian Atalante (q.v.).

Hipponaz. A Greek iambic poet of Ephesus, who about 540 b.c. was banished to ClazOmgnae by Athenagfiras and Comas, tyrants of his native city. At Clazomenae, two sculptors, Bupalus and Athenls, made the little, thin, ugly poet ridiculous in caricature, who avenged himself in such bitter iambic verses that, like Lycambes and his daughter, who were persecuted by Archi-Idchus, they hanged themselves.

The burlesque character of the poems which he composed in the Ionic dialect found an appropriate form in his favourite metre, which was probably invented by himself. This metre is known as the CTio-liambus (" the halting iambus"), or the ScazOn (lit. " limping "), from its having a spondee or trochee in the last place, instead of the usual iambic foot. He is also sup­posed to have been the first to produce parodies of epic poetry. Of his poems we have only a few fragments.

Hipp6th66n. Son of Paseidon and Alfipe, the daughter of Cercyon of Eleusis. After his birth he was exposed by his mother and suckled by a mare, until some shepherds found him and reared him. A15pe (who had been imprisoned for life by her father), was transformed into a spring bearing her own name at Eleusis. When Theseus (q.v.) overcame Cercyon in wrestling, and killed him, he restored to Hippothoon the inheri­tance of his grandfather. He was afterwards honoured as the hero of the Attic tribe that bore his name.

Hippotorotse. A name given at Athens to & corps of mounted archers, composed of slaves belonging to the state. (See hippeis.)

Hippys (of Rhegium). One of the Greek Logographi (q.v.).

Hirtiua (Aulus). A friend of Caesar, and one of his companions in arms. He com­pleted Caesar's Commentarll on the Gallic War by adding an eighth book. Accord­ing to the dedication to Cornelius Balbus prefixed to that book, he contemplated the continuation of Caesar's account of the Civil War to Caesar's death. This intention he never carried out, as he fell in battle at

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