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281

HERACLES.

and had set the earth free from monsters and rascals. Accordingly he was invoked in all the perils of life as the saviour (Soter) and the averter of evil (Alcxlkakds). Men prayed for his protection against locusts, flies, and noxious serpents. He was a wanderer, and had travelled over the whole world; therefore he was called on as the guide on marches and journeys (Heggmo-nms). In another character he was the glorious conqueror (Kallinlkds) who, after his toils are over, enjoys his rest with wine, feasting, and music. Indeed, the fable represents him as having, in his hours of repose, given as striking proofs of inex­haustible bodily power as in his struggles and contests. Men liked to think of him as an enormous eater, capable of devouring a whole ox ; as a lusty boon companion, fond of delighting himself and others by playing the lyre. In Rome he was coupled with the Muses, and, like Apollo elsewhere, was worshipped as Musagetes, or master of the iluses. After his labours he was sup­posed to have been fond of hot baths, which were accordingly deemed sacred to him. Among trees, the wild olive and white poplar were consecrated to him ; the poplar he was believed to have brought from far countries to Olympia.

Owing to the influence of the Greek colonies in Italy, the worship of Hercules was widely diffused among the Italian tribes. It attached itself to local legends and religion; the conqueror of Cacus, for instance, was originally not Hercules, but a powerful shepherd called Garanos. Again, Hercules came to be identified with the ancient Italian deity Sancus or Dius Fidius, and was regarded as the god of happiness in home and field, industry and war, as well as of truth and honour. His altar was the Ara Maxima in the cattle-market (ftirum Marium), which he was believed to have erected himself. (See cacus.) Here they dedicated to him a tithe of their gains in war and peace, ratified solemn treaties, and invoked his name to witness their oaths. He had many shrines and sacrifices in Rome, corresponding to his various titles Victor (Conqueror), Invictus (Unconquered), CustSs (Guardian), Defensor (Defender), and others. His rites were always performed in Greek fashion, with the head covered. It was in his temple that soldiers and gladiators were accustomed to hang up their arms when their service was over. In the stone-quarries the labourers had their Hercules Saxanus (or Hercules of the

stone). He was called the father of L&tl-nus, the ancestor of the Latines, and to him the Roman gens of the Fabn traced their origin. The ancient gens of the Potittl were said to have been commis­sioned by the god in person to provide, with the assistance of the Pinaril, for his sacrifices at the Ara Maxima. In 310 b.c. the Potitii gave the service into the hands of state slaves. Before a year had passed the flourishing family had become com­pletely extinct.

In works of art Heracles is represented as the ideal of manly strength, with full,

FAKNESE HEHCL'LES. (Naples Museum.)

well knit, and muscular limbs, serious ex­pression, a curling beard, short neck, and a head small in proportion to the limbs. His equipment is generally the club and the lion's skin. The type appears to have been mainly fixed by Lysippus. _The Farnese Hercules, by the Athenian Glycon, is probably a copy of one by Lysippus. Hercules is portrayed in repose, leaning on his club, which is covered with the lion's

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