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On this page: Hellanicus – Hellanodicae – Helle – Hellenotamiae – Hellotis – Helmets

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HELLANICUS——HELMETS.

Hellanicus (Hcllanlktis). One of the Greek logdgrdphl or chroniclers, born at Mytilene in Lesbos about 480 b.c. He is said to have lived till the age of 85, and to have gone on writing until after b.c. 406. In the course of his long life he composed a series of works on genealogy, chorography, and chronology. He was the first writer who attempted to introduce a systematic chronological arrangement into the tradi­tional periods of Greek, and especially Athenian, history and mythology. His theories of the ancient Attic chronology were accepted down to the time of Eratos­thenes.

HellanJdicaB (Hettanocttkai). See olym­pic games.

Helle. In Greek mythology, daughter of Athamas and Nephgle. (See athamas.)

Hellen&tamlas. The name of a board of ten members, elected annually by lot as controllers of the fund contributed by the members of the Athenian confederacy. The treasure was originally deposited at Dele's, but after B.C. 461 was transferred to Athens. The yearly contributions of the cities owning the Athenian supremacy amounted at first to 460 talents (some £92,000); during the Peloponnesian War they increased to nearly 1,300 talents (£260 000).

Hellotls. See europe.

Helmets. Helmets were, in antiquity, made sometimes of metal, sometimes of leather. A metal helmet was in Greek called krdnos, in Latin cassls; a leather one in Greek kyne, in Latin gdlla. Leather helmets were sometimes finished with metal work.

(1) Three forms of the Greek helmet may be distinguished, (a) The Corinthian visored helmet, which Athens is repre­sented as wearing on the coins of Corinth. This had a projecting nose-guard, a long or short neck-piece, and two side-pieces to protect the cheeks. An opening, connecting with the two eye-holes, was left for the nose and mouth. The helmet was, except in battle, thrown backwards over the head. (6) the Attic helmet, represented on Attic coins as the only one worn by Athene. The neck-piece fits close to the head; the cheek-pieces are either fixed immovably to the head-piece, or can be moved up and down by means of joints; in front of the head­piece, extending from ear to ear, was a guard, sometimes arranged for putting up or down, and thus acting as a screen for the face, (c) The simple cap, worn chiefly by

the Arcadians and Lacedaemonians. This sometimes had a projecting brim, sometimes not. The skull was protected either by a cone of varying form, or by a guard running

GREEK HKLMKTS.

over the top of the helmet. This was often adorned with a plume of horsehair or feathers.

(2) Roman. The engravings will give a sufficient idea of the different varieties of Roman helmets. For the visored helmets of the gladiators see gladiatores. The stan-

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