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was attributed to king Numa, like that of many others which had existed from time immemorial. The guilds of craftsmen (collegia Splftcum), included flute-players, goldsmiths, coppersmiths, carpenters, fullers, dyers, potters, and shoemakers. There was originally a ninth collegium, which em-rbaced all not included in the other eight; but in later times these, with the new industries that gradually arose, combined into special guilds. The object of the guilds undoubtedly was to maintain an unbroken tradition, and to watch over the common interest. But there seems to have been no compulsion exercised to make men join a guild.
The Romans, like the Greeks, seem to have thought that there was something objectionable in mechanical labour; but it is uncertain whether the prejudice was of really old standing. It must be remembered that the Servian constitution threw the burden of military service entirely upon the landowners. Thus the craftsmen, who as a rule had no landed property, were practically, though not legally, excluded from the army. From this circumstance may have arisen the low estimation in which manual industry was consequently held. It was partly owing to this state of opinion that peasants, when they lost their land, were unwilling to win their bread as mechanics, and preferred to adopt the dependent position of clients, living on public alms and the bribes of candidates at elections. In Rome, as in Greece, the handicrafts tended more and more to pass into the hands of strangers, freedmen, and slaves. In wealthy houses most of the necessary manual work was done by slaves, whose talents were often, as in Greece, turned to account by their masters. They were often employed in manufactures, and especially in such branches of industry as could be combined with agriculture, tile-making for instance, pottery, dying, tanning, felt-making, etc. No social stigma attached to manufacture in Rome any more than in Greece; indeed in the imperial age even the emperors and the members of the imperial household would, without scruple, invest their private capital in industrial undertakings of this sort. After the fall of the republic, and throughout the imperial age, Rome was the centre of the whole commercial activity of the ancient world, though the Romans made no special contribution to industrial progress. Having in former ages been dominated by Etruscan
' influence, Roman industry was in later times dependent on the art of the Eastern j world, and especially of Greece.
Hanno. A Carthaginian, who, about 500 b.c., undertook a voyage of discovery along the west coast of Africa, and penetrated beyond the Senegal. He put up a tablet in the temple of Bel at Carthage, describing his journey in the Phoenician language. A Greek translation of this document (Hannonis Plrlplus), of uncertain date, still survives, and is one of the oldest memorials of ancient geographical science.
Har. See horos.
Harmonla. The daughter of Ares and AphrOdite, and wife of Cadmus. (See cadmus.) At her marriage all the gods were present on the Acropolis of Thebes, and offered her their wedding gifts. Cadmus gave her a costly garment and a necklace, the workmanship of Hephaestus, which he had received from Aphrodite, or (according to another account), from Europa. These gifts, so the story runs, had everywhere the fatal property of stirring up strife and bloodshed. It was with them that Polyneices corrupted Eriphyle, who drove her husband to his destruction in the Theban War, and was murdered in revenge by her son Alcmaeon. It was for their sake that Alcmseon and Phegeus and his sons were slain. (See alcm.son and phegeus.) The jewels were at length deposited by the sons of Alcmaeon in the sanctuary of Delphi. According to a later story Phayllus, a leader of the Phocians in the war against Philip of Macedon, carried off, among other treasures, the necklace of Harmonia, and gave it to his mistress, the wife of Ariston of (Eta. But her youngest son set fire to the house in a fit of madness, and the mother, with the necklace, was consumed.
Harmostae (" regulators"). A board consisting of twenty members, at Sparta; probably a kind of higher police, whose duty it was to maintain a supervision over the districts inhabited by the pfrlascl. After the Peloponnesian War the name was given to the officials who were sent into the conquered cities to command the garrisons, and to see that the oligarchical constitution was maintained.
Harpastum. See ball, games with.
Harpdcrates. See horos.
HarpScratlon (Valerius). A Greek scholar of Alexandria, who lived probably in the 2nd century a.d. He was the author of a lexicon to the ten great Attic orators, which