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the realm of Hades (see hades). The name Tartarus was in later times often applied to the whole of the lower world. The ghosts of those who had lived a life of average merit were imagined as wandering on the asphodel meadow.
In general it must be said that the ancient ideas of a future life were always subject to considerable changes, owing to the influence of the doctrines taught in the mysteries, and the representations of poets, philosophers, sculptors, and painters (see poly-GNOTUS). The general tendency was to multiply the terrors of Hades, especially at the gates, and in Tartarus. (For the deities of the lower world see hades, persephone, «nd erinyes.) The Greek beliefs on the subject found their way to Rome through the instrumentality of the poets, especially Vergil. But they did not entirely supplant the national traditions. (See obcds, mania, manes, lares, and larvae.)
and dedicated it to some deity, generally to Apollo, or the gods of their rivers, or the Nymphs, who were regarded as the protectresses of youth. But a free Athenian citizen did not wear his hair very short, or he would have been mistaken for a slave, who would be obliged to do so. Down to the time of Alexander the Great, a fall beard was regarded as a mark of manly dignity. After this it became fashionable to ' shave the face quite smooth, and only philosophers wore beards, to mark their antagonism to the general custom. The Romans too, in ancient times, wore long hair and beards. It was not till 300 b.c., when the first hair-cutter (tonsor) came to Romefrom Sicily, that they began to cut both. The younger Scipio is said to have been the first Roman who shaved every day. In course of time it became the fashion to make a festival of the day when the beard was first shaved. Young men, however,
(1) COIFFUBES OP GREEK LADIES. (Prom terracottas, Stackelberg'B Gr&ber der Uellenen, taf. Ixxv, etc.)
Haemon. See antigone.
Hair, mode of wearing. The Greeks of the oldest times regarded long hair in a man as an ornament, and only cut it as a sign of mourning. Among the Spartans it was usual for boys to wear their hair short, and to let it grow when they attained the age of IphSbt. At Athens, down to the Persian Wars, the hair was worn long, and fastened up into a knot (krobylos) by a needle in the form of a grasshopper. In later times, however, the Athenian boys had their hair cut when they became ephebi,
would sometimes wear a neatly cut beard, and only men over forty would shave. To let the beard grow was a sign of mourning. In the first half of the 2nd century a.d. the emperor Hadrian brought full beards into fashion again; and if we may trust the coins, it continued among his successors, with few exceptions, until Constantine. From his time, however, the emperors appear almost without exception without a beard.
The beard was removed not only with razors and scissors, but with tweezers and