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L, M. Warm baths.
Near I. Staircase to laconicum.
F. G. Cold bathe.
H, H. Hot baths.
with much talent in an even and classical style, but with considerable dryness in many parts. Grattius has been styled Faliscus because, in one passage, he apparently indicates that the Palisci were his countrymen.
Groma. The measuring instrument used by land surveyors, who were called GrOmd-tlcl from it. See aorimensores.
Gustatto. See meals.
Gynaiionitls. See house.
Gynm&slarchla. See leitouegia (2).
Gymnasium (Gr. Gymnasidn). The Greek name for the place where the youths who had already passed through the pdlaistra performed their gymnastic exercises. (See palestra.) Such was the importance which the Greeks attached to physical training, that no city in Greece proper, and no Greek colony, was without its gymnasium. There were several in the larger cities. Athens, for instance, in the time of its greatness, possessed three, all situated outside the city, the Acddlmla, the Lycaeum, and the CynOsargSs. In later times there were even more. It was in the gymnasia that the Sphfln went through the two years' course of exercises which were to fit them for military service.
The simplest form of a gymnasium was that of a court surrounded by columns
revived interest in the older literature. This period is distinguished by the names of Suetonius, Terentius Scaurus, and Aulus Gellfus. Suetonius aspired to the many-sided learning of Varro, and, like Varro, was much quoted by later writers.
After this time the grammarians tend more and more to confine their studies to points of language, to abandon independent research, and to depend on the labours of their predecessors. The chief value of their writings consists in the fact that they have preserved some fragments of ancient learning, Their extracts are usually made for school purposes, and put together in artis, or manuals of accidence, orthography, prosody, and metre. Such are the books of Marius Victorinus, Donatus, Servlus, Chari-slus, Diomedes, who are all assigned to the 4th century a.d. Nonius Marcellus belongs to the same period. He is the author of a work (De Compendldsd Doctrlna) which, though dreary and uncritical, is invaluable for the stores of old Latin which it has preserved. The 6th century is marked by the name of Priscian. We may further notice TSrentlanus Maurus, the author of a versified treatise on metre in the 3rd century; Macroblus, who in the 5th century composed a miscellany of antiquities called Saturnalia; and Isidore, Bishop of Seville, in the 7th century, whose OnglnSs is the last work founded on a real study of ancient authorities.
GrarninatlcuB (Gr. Grammatl-k6s). See education.
Grammatistes. See education.
Granlns Llclnlanus. A Roman historian, who probably flourished in the 2nd century a.d. He was the author of a work compiled in the style of annalCs, ending with the death of Caesar. Some considerable fragments have been found in modern times of books 28-36, covering the history of the years 163-78 b.c.
Graphe. Set judicial procedure.
Gratlae, or Graces.
* GYMNASIUM AT EPHESUS. (Ionian Antiquities, ii, pi. 40.)
(peristylWri). This served for the exercises in leaping and running. Covered spaces were attached for wrestling. Owing to the great variety of gymnastic exercises, and
Gratlus [better Gratttus] Falis-cus. A Roman poet, contemporary d. Dressing-rooms, with Ovid. He was the author of a poem on the chase (Cynlgetlcon), of which only the first book has been preserved, and that mutilated towards the close. The fragment consists of some 535 hexameters, in which the subject is treated