The Ancient Library

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tribes. These families consisted of some thirty houses, who referred their origin and name to a common ancestor, and observed a common worship, with special priests to superintend it. The objects of this worship •were Zeus Herkeios (the god of house and home), Apollo Patroo's (the god of the family), the hems of the family, and other tutelary deities. Supposing that a family worship rose to the dignity of a state ceremony, the priestly office remained hereditary in the family (genna). If there were no nearer relations, the members of the genna had a law of inheritance which they observed among themselves. Maintained by these religious and legal ties, the genna; aud the phratriae survived the old Ionic tribes, after the abolition of the latter by Cleis-thenes. The president of the genna super­intended the enrolment of new members into it at the feast of the Apdturw, the occasion on which the new members of the phratrice were also enrolled. (See apa-turia.) A citizen who did not belong to a genna could only become member of one by adoption, and under certain conditions.

Gens (Latin). A family (in the widest sense of the word) descended on the male line from a common ancestor, and therefore bearing a commcn name. So long as the patricians were the only citizens with full rights, there could of course be no gentes not patrician. The oldest gente.s belonged to the tribes of the Latin Ramnes and the Sabine Titles. Besides these there were the gentes belonging to the Alban families, brought to Rome by King Tullus Hostllius; and embodied by the other gentes in the community as a third tribe, the Luce'res. These, the most ancient, were called gentes mdiores as distinguished from the gentes mlnOres, which included the plebeians whom Tarqulnlus Priscus raised to the rank of patricians. There were in later times in­stances of plebeian gentes being raised to patrician rank : but these became rarer and rarer, so that the number of patrician gentes was very much reduced. During the last years of the Republic we hear of only fourteen still in existence, including thirty fdnnlice (or families in the narrower sense). Many large gentes were divided into houses (stirpes) who had a common cognomen in addition to the name of their gens ; thus the gens Cornelia included the Cornclii Maluginenses, Cornelii Cossi, Cornelii SclpwnSs, Cornclii Rufini, Cornelii Lcn-tuli, Cornelii Dolftbella>, Cornclii Cethegi, Cornclii Cinna1, Cornclii Sullcc. Among

the plebeians, as among the patricians, the familia naturally developed into a larger circle of relationship ; but gentes in the old sense were not formed by the process. Though the plebeian had his gentile name, and afterwards his cognomen, he had not the real ius gentlllclum.

All gentile's or members of a gens had a right to its common property, which in­cluded a common burial-place. They also had a testamentary law of their own which lasted on into the imperial period. When the member of a gens died without heirs of his body, the next to inherit (as in the case of the plebeians) were the agnatl, or gentiles on the male side, who could prove their relationship: failing these, the gentiles divided the inheritance. The existence of this law rendered it, in old times, necessary to obtain the consensus of the whole gens in cases of adoption and testamentary be­quest. Another con sequence of it was, that it was the duty of the gentiles to provide a curator for insane persons and spendthrifts, and a guardian for minors.

Every gens had its meetings, at which resolutions were passed binding its indi­vidual members in matters affecting the gens. It was a decree of the gens Manila, for instance, which forbade any one of its members to bear the prcenomSn Marcus. As every familia, whether patrician or plebeian, had certain sacrifices which it was bound to perform, so had every gens, as a larger or extended familia. All members of the gens were entitled, and indeed bound, to take part in the sacra gentilicia, or com­mon worship of the gens. These sacra ceased to exist with the extinction of a gens: and if a member of a gens left it, this right and duty also came to an end. It should be added that certain public religious services were assigned to particular gentes, that of Hercules, for instance, to the gens Plnarla.

Geography. Geographical research and literature took their rise, like historical literature, among the lonians of Asia Minor. Their extended commerce and their activity in founding colonies enlarged their geo­graphical horizon. The necessity was thus felt of utilizing and registering the know­ledge already acquired for the purpose of discovering the form and constitution of the earth. The first attempt at sketching a map of the world was made by Aristagoras of Miletus about 550 b.c. His kinsman Hecatseus, one of the writers called LogOgraphl, who flourished about fifty

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