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substances which separated the fat from them, as urine, nitre, and fuller's earth. If the object was to felt the web, and make it thicker and stronger, the same process was gone through, and the cloth was then beaten with rods, washed out in clean water, dried, carded with a kind of thistle or with the skin of a hedgehog, fumigated with sulphur, rubbed in with fuller's earth to make it whiter and stronger, and finally dressed by brushing, shearing, and pressing. The fuller's earth, when well rubbed in, prevented the clothes from getting dirty too soon, and freshened up the colours which
the sulphur had destroyed. Some frescoes preserved on the walls of an ancient fuller's shop at Pompeii give a clear notion of the different processes. The fullones at Rome formed one of the oldest guilds. Like all mechanics, they worshipped Minerva as their tutelary goddess, and took a prominent part in her chief festival, the Quinquatrus.
Fundltorea (funda, a sling). The light-armed slingers in the Roman army. They were usually raised by recruiting, or contributed by the allies.
Furlae. See erinyes.
Fustlbalus. See slings.
Gaea (Gr. Gaia or Ge). The Greek goddess of the Earth. According to Hesiod she came into being after Chaos, and brought forth of herself the sky (Ourdnos), the mountains, and the sea (Ponton). By Uranus she was mother of the Titans, Cyclopls and HScatoncheires. From the blood of her mutilated husband sprang the Erinyes, Giants and Melian nymphs: to Pontus she bore Nereus, Thaumas, Phorcys, Ceto and Eurybla. Other terrible beings, such as the giants Typhon, Antseus and Tityus, were her offspring, as also the auKchthonls (aborigines) such as Erechtheus and CScrops. In Homer she is invoked with Zeus, the Sun, Heaven and Hell as a witness to oaths, and worshipped with the sacrifice of a black lamb. But she was especially honoured as the mother of all, who nourishes her creatures and pours rich blessings upon them. In Athens, in particular, she was worshipped as KourdtrGph&s, or the nourisher of children, and at the same time as the goddess of death, who summons all her creatures back to her and hides them in her bosom. She was honoured also as the primeval prophetess, especially in Delphi, the oracle of which was at first in her possession as the power who sent forth the vapours which inspired the seer. The corresponding Roman goddess was Tellus. (See tellus.)
Gains. One of the most accomplished professors of Roman law and writers on the subject. He was a native of the Asiatic provinces, and spent his days in Rome under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius (about 110-180 a.d.). His writings were numerous : but we possess in ! a tolerably complete form nothing but his •• Instltutwnes, or introduction to the private law of the Romans. This was discovered in 1816, having before been known in quota-
tions only. The work is in four books, the first of which treats of the family, the second and third of property, and the fourth of legal procedure. Popular and intelligible without being superficial, it was a favourite handbook of law, and served as a foundation for the Institution*?a of Justinian.
Galatea (the milk-white). A sea-nymph, daughter of Nereus and Doris. According to a Sicilian story, which the poets Philoxenus and Theocritus have made famous, she was pursued by the uncouth monster PSlyphe-mus, being herself in love with the beautiful Acts. The jealous giant crushes Acis with a rock, and the nymph changes her beloved into the Sicilian river which bears his name.
Galenus (Gr. GaUn&s ; Claudius) was the most celebrated physician in antiquity after HippScrates, and at the same time one of the most prolific among ancient writers. He was born at Pergamon in 131 a.d., received a careful education in philosophy, and afterwards devoted himself to medical studies in his native city, at Smyrna, Corinth, and Alexandria. He returned to Pergamon in 158, and undertook the medical treatment of gladiators, as giving him the best opportunity for increasing his stock of surgical knowledge. In 164 he moved to Rome, and here won a considerable reputation by his success in practice and his public lectures on anatomy. After three years he was driven by the attacks of jealous rivals to leave Rome. He undertook scientific journeys through Greece and Asia, and then settled again in his native city. But he was soon recalled by the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucuis Verus, and in 170 appointed private physician to the young Commodua. He died in his seventieth year, after winning the high esteem of his contemporaries.