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(2) Roman. Among the Romans there was, originally, no such thing as a direct expulsion from the city. But a man might be cut off from fire and water, the symbol of civic communion, which of course practically forced him to leave the country. This interdictio dquc& et ignis was originally inflicted by the comltla centurlata, and later by the permanent judicial commissions appointed to try certain serious offences, as, for instance, treason, arson, and poisoning. In case of the capital charge the accused was always free to anticipate an unfavourable verdict, or the interdictio agtux et ignis, by withdrawing
into voluntary exile. The exilium involved the lesser demtnutio cdpttis, or loss of citizenship, if the banished person became citizen of another state; or if the people declared the banishment to be deserved; or if the interdictio aqua: et ignis was pronounced after he had gone into exile. It was only in very serious cases that a man's property was also confiscated. Real banishment was first inflicted under the Empire. (See deportatio and relegatio.)
Exddlnm. A play of a lively character acted on the Roman stage at the end of a serious piece. It corresponded in character to the satyric drama of the Greeks. The place of the exodium was originally taken by the dramatic satura, and later by the Atellana and Mlmus.
Exomis. See chiton.
FaWhis Pict6r. See annalists.
Fabrl. The mechanics, carpenters, smiths, etc., in the Roman army. After the end of the republican age they formed an independent corps in every army, and were employed especially in the restoration of bridges, siege and defence works, artillery, etc. They were under the command of the prcefectus fabrum, or chief engineer, who was chosen by the general in chief, and was immediately responsible to him.
Fabfila Palllata and TBgata. See comedy.
Famllla. The Latin name for a household community, consisting of the master of the house (pMer fdmUlds), his wife (rndter familias), his sons and unmarried daughters (flltt and filial familias), the wives, sons, and unmarried daughters of the sons, and the slaves. All the other members of the family were subject to the authority of the pater familias. (For the power of the husband over his wife, see manus.) In virtue of his paternal authority (patrla pdtestQs), the pater familias had absolute authority over his children. He might, if he liked, expose them, sell them, or kill them. These rights, as manners were gradually softened, were more and more rarely enforced; but they legally came to an end only when the father died, lost his citizenship, or of his own will freed his son from his authority. (See emanci-patio.) They could, however, be transferred to another person if the son were adopted, or the daughter married. A son, if of full age, was not in any way interfered with by the patria potestas in the exercise
of his civil rights. But in the exercise of his legal rights as an individual, he was dependent always on his father. He could, for instance, own no property, but all that he acquired was, in the eye of the law, at the exclusive disposal of his father. The pater familias alone had the right of making dispositions of the family property by mortgage, sale, or testament.
Family Names. See names.
Fanning. See annalists.
Fanners of Public Taxes. See publicani
Farnese Bull. See dirce.
Fasces. The Latin name for a bundle of rods of elm or birch, tied together by a red strap, and enclosing an axe, with its head outside. The fasces were originally the emblem of the king's absolute authority over life and limb, and as such passed over to the high magistrates of the Republic. In the city, however, the latter had to remove the axe and to lower the rods in the presence of the popular assembly as the sovereign power. The lowering of the fasces was also the form in which the lower officials saluted the higher. The king was preceded by lictors bearing twelve fasces, and so were the consuls and proconsuls. The proconsuls, however, were, since the time of Augustus, only allowed this number if they had actually been consuls previously. The dictator had twenty-four fasces, as representing the two consuls, and his mrtpist&r Squltum had six. Six was also the number allotted to the proconsuls and propraetors outside the city, and in the