The Ancient Library

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On this page: Ennodius – Enomotia – Enyalios – Enyo – Epaphos – Epeus – Ephebi



more. By the introduction of the Greek hexameter Ennius did much to further the future development of Latin poetry. His predecessor, Nsevius, had continued to write in the native Saturnian metre, which was hardly capable of artistic development. But the practice of writing in the strict dactylic measure enabled the Latin poets to assimilate the other metrical forms pre­sented by Greek literature.

Of the Annals we possess, relatively speak­ing, only a small number of fragments. Some of these can only be distinguished from prose by their metrical form; others are very fine, both in form and ideas. Ennius showed considerable capacity, too, as a writer of tragedies. His dramas, which were very numerous, were composed after Greek models, especially the tragedies of Euripides. More than twenty of these Euripidean plays are known to us by their titles and sur­viving fragments. He also wrote pras-textce, or tragedies on Roman subjects, as, for instance, the Ambracla, representing the siege and conquest of this city by his patron Fulvius Nobilior. His comedies were neither so numerous nor so important as his tragedies. Besides these he wrote several books of s&tiirce, or collections of poems of various contents and in various metres. Several of his adaptations or trans­lations of Greek originals were probably in­cluded in these : as, for instance, the Hedy-phagettca, a gastronomic work after Arches-tratus of Gela; Epicharmus, a didactic poem on the "Nature of Things"; Euhe-mUrus, a rationalistic interpretation of the popular fables about the gods; Prcecepta or Protrepttcus, containing moral doctrines; and others of the same kind. There was a poem entitled Scipio, written in honour of the elder Afrlcanus. Whether this was a satura or a drama is uncertain.

The memory of Ennius long survived the fall of the Republic. Even after literary taste had taken quite a different direction, he was revered as the father of Latin poetry, and especially as having done much to enrich the Latin language.

Ennfldlus (Magnus Felix). A Latin rhetorician and poet. He was born about 473 a.d. in the south of France, and died in 521 as bishop of Pavia. Among the other works, he wrote between 504 and 508 an extremely fulsome panegyric on Theodosius the Great, and a biography of Epiphanius, his predecessor in the see. Both these writings have a value for the historian. Besides these we have a collec-

tion of twenty-eight model speeches, some of which were really delivered : nine books of letters, and two of poems, sacred and secular. The first book of poems contains longer, the second shorter and occasional pieces. Both show a certain command of form.

EnomStla. A subordinate division of the LdchSs in the Spartan army. (See lochos and mora.)

EnyalI6s. Epithet of Ares. (See abes.)

Enyo. (1) A Greek goddess of battle, companion of Ares (see ares), identified by the Romans with Bellona, (See abes, bellona.) (2) One of the Graice. (See grai/e.)

Eos (Latin Aurora). The Greek goddess of the dawn, daughter of the Titan Hyperion and Theia, sister of HeliSs and Selene, by Astneus, mother of the winds, Argestes, Zephj'rSs, BSreas and NfltSs, the morning star HSosphdros, and of the stars in general. Her hair is beautiful, her arms and fingers ruddy, her wings are white. She rises early from her couch on the Eastern Ocean, and in a saffron-coloured mantle, on a golden chariot drawn by white horses, she comes forth as her brother's herald to proclaim the rising of day to mortals and immortals, Loving all fresh and youthful beauty, she carries away Clitus, Cephalus, Orion and Tithonus, to whom she bears Memnon and Emathion. She is represented in works of art as hovering in the sky, or riding on her chariot, moving with a torch before Ares, or sprinkling dew from a vase over the earth. See memnon.

Epaphds. See lo and belos.

Epeus (Epeids). (See trojan war.)

Ephebi. The Athenian name for youths over the age of sixteen. The completion of a boy's sixteenth year was the occasion of a festival, at which the Sphebus made a drink offering to Heracles, and entertained his friends with wine. His hair, hitherto worn long, was cut, and the locks dedicated to Apollo. For the two following years the ephebi were mainly employed in gymnastic exercises, and after that time the proper civic ephebia commenced. After an exa­mination intended to test the genuineness of their civic descent and their physical capacity, the ephebi were entered on the list of their tribe, presented to the people assembled in the theatre, armed with spear and shield, and taken to the sanctuary of Agraulos at the foot of the citadel, where they bound themselves by a solemn oath to the service and defence of their country.

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