The Ancient Library

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On this page: Eiresione – Eisangelia – Eisphora – Ekecheiria – Elaphebolia – Electra – Electrum



sented accordingly as a young woman with Plutus in her arms. (See plutps.) Among her other attri­butes are the cornucopia, the olive branch, Hermes' staff, and ears of corn in her hand and on her head. The correspond­ing deity among the Romans was Pax, to whom an altar was set up on July 4th, 13 b.c., on the re­turn of Augustus from Gaul.

Eireslone. See pyanepsia.

Eisang&lia eibene with infant plutus. (Greek). Pro- (Munich, Glyptothek.) perly, an an­ nouncement made in presence of a legal authority. In Attic jurisprudence eis- angelia was a special form of public prose­ cution, instituted especially for offences which appeared to inflict injury, directly or indirectly, upon the state, but which it was impracticable to prosecute under the regular and customary procedure. The accusation was put into writing and handed in to the senate; if the senate received it, the accused was arrested, or had to get three persons to stand surety for him. But if the charge were one of treason, or an attack upon the constitution, this was not allowed. If the voting on the guilt or innocence of the accused were unfavourable, the senate itself fixed the penalty, suppos­ ing it fell short of the amount which lay within its competence (500 drachmse or £16 13s. 4d.). If not, the senate referred the case at once to one of the courts of the Hellaea, or even to the ecclesla, to which the prosecutor might, indeed, have applied from the first. If the ecclesia decided to take up the case, the first thing it did was to fix the penalty, in case there were no legal provisions on this point. It then either entered on the investigation and decided the case, or handed it over to a court of law. The name eisangelia was also given to the prosecution of judges in office for neglect of their duties ; and to certain charges lodged before the archons : namely, charges against children for ill- treatment of parents, against husbands for

ill-*reatment of heiresses, and against guar­dians for ill-treatment of their wards. (See archons.)

Eisph6ra (Athenian). An income-tax, levied only in extraerdinary cases. It was based on the Solonian division of classes into PentAc6sl6medimn1, Hippeis, ZeugUce, and ThetSs, the last of whom were not taxed at all. The taxable capital was esti­mated at twelve times a man's net income as estimated by himself. In the case of the Pentacosiomedimni, with a minimum in­come of 500 drachmse and minimum capital of 6,000 drachmse ( = 1 talent or £200), the whole property was treated as taxable capital (Rme'ma), In the case of the Hippeis (300-3,600 drachmse) five-sixths, in that of the Zeugitce (150-1,800 drachmas) five-ninths or 1,000 drachmse. The first instance of the levy of an eisphora oc­curred in 428 B.C. In 378 B.C. another method of levying it was introduced under the archon Nausinicus. According to this, the taxable capital of the highest class was fixed at one-fifth of the whole property. The resident aliens (mitcecl), as well as the citizens, were liable to pay the eisphora. On the method of collecting it, see sym-

Ekficheirla. The "truce of God" (lite­rally, "holding of hands"), observed in Greece at the great festivals which were visited by strangers ; e.g. the national games, and the Eleustnla in Attica. This peace was proclaimed by heralds through­out Greece, to secure the visitors to the games freedom in passing backwards and forwards and security during the festival. In the case of the Eleusinia the truce lasted 1J months and ten days.

Elaphebolla. A festival held at Athens in the month ElaphebSlIon (March- April) in honour of Artfimis as goddess of the chase and of game. (See artemis.)

Electra (Gr. Elektra). (1) Daughter of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, sister of Iphlgfinia and Orestes. She saved Orestes from the murderer of his father, and assisted him afterwards in avenging his death. She married PylSdes, her brother's friend, and became the mother of MSdon and StrSphlus.

(2) One of the Pleiades, the mother (by Zeus) of Dardanus, ancestor of the royal house of Troy.

Electrum (Gr. Elektrdn). This word had two meanings in antiquity. (1) A mixture of gold and silver in the proportion of about 4 : 1. (2) Amber, the use of which in orna-

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