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On this page: Dupondius – Duris – Duumviri – Eagle – Ecclesia

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DUPONDIUS——ECCLESIA.

rOrum (see sibyls), duoviri mis purgan-dis (see viointi sex viri, 6). In colonies and mttnlclpia, the title was borne by the two highest officials, who represented the the authority of the Roman consuls. (See municipium.)

Dupondlus. See coinage.

Duris. (1) A Greek historian, a native of Samos, and a disciple of Theophrastus. For some time he was despot of Samos. In the first half of the 3rd century b.c. he

i wrote, besides other historical works, a com­prehensive history, in twenty-three books, of Greece and Macedonia, from 370 to at least 281 b.c. He was also the author of Annals of Samos, in at least twelve books. No­thing but fragments of his writings remain, which show that they were no more than uncritical collections of material carelessly treated.

(2) A vase-painter; see vases.

Duumviri. See duoviri.

Eagle (Aquttd,). The standard of a Roman legion, introduced by Marius: a silver (or, under the Empire, golden) eagle carried on

•a pole by the aqulllfer, or eagle-bearer, its wings spread out, and often a thunderbolt in its talons. Beneath it were frequently fixed in later times a flag (see vexilldm), and other ornaments, e.g. medallions with portraits of emperors and generals. Under the Republic, during peace, it was preserved in the cerarfum j in camp it stood in a small chapel beside the prcetorium, was held in religious veneration by the soldiers, and regarded as affording sanctuary; in battle it was borne on the right wing of the legion, in the first century of the first cohort. From Augustus' time it bore the name and number of the legion (see the figs, under signum).

Eccleala (Greek). The assembly of the people, which in Greek cities had the power of final decision in public affairs.

(1) At Athens every citizen in posses­sion of full civic rights was entitled to take part in it from his twentieth year

•upwards. In early times one ecclesia met regularly once a year in each of the ten prytanies of the senate (see boule), in later times four, making forty annually. Special assemblies might also be called on occasion. The place of meet­ing was in early times the market-place, in later times a special locality, called the Pnyx ; but generally the theatre, after a permanent theatre had been erected. To summon the assembly was the duty of the Prytanes, who did so by publishing the notice of proceedings. There was a special authority, a board of six Lexiarchl (so called)

•with thirty assistants, whose business it was to keep unauthorized persons out of the assembly. The members on their appear­ance were each presented with a ticket, on exhibiting which, after the conclusion of the meeting, they received a payment of an

obolus (about l'3d.), in later times of three obols. After a solemn prayer and sacrifice, the president (Epist&tHs) communicated to the meeting the subjects of discussion. If there were a previous resolution of the senate for discussion, he put the question whether the people would adopt it, or prc-

! ceed to discuss it. In the debates every citizen had the right of addressing the meeting, but no one could speak more than once. Before doing so he put a crown of

I myrtle on his head. The president (but no one else) had the right of interrupting a speaker. If his behaviour were unseemly, the president could cut short his harangue, expel him from the rostrum and from the meeting, and inflict upon him a fine not exceeding 500 drachmae (£16 13s. 4d.). Cases of graver misconduct had to be referred

1 to the senate or assembly for punishment. Any citizen could move an amendment or counter-proposal, which he handed in in writing to the presiding Prytany. The president had to decide whether it should be put to the vote. This could be prevented, not only by the mere declaration of the president that it was illegal, but by any one present who bound himself on oath to

I prosecute the proposer for illegality. The speaker might also retract his proposal. The votes were taken by show of hands (cheirotGnla}. The voting was never secret, unless the question affected some one's personal interest, as in the case of ostra­cism. In such cases a majority of at least 6,000 votes was necessary. The resolution (psgptrismd) was announced by the presi­dent, and a record of it taken, which was deposited in the archives, and often publicly exhibited on tables of stone or bronze. After the conclusion of business, the presi­dent, through his herald, dismissed the people. If no final result was arrived at, or if the business was interrupted by a sign from heaven, such as a storm or a

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