The Ancient Library

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On this page: Dreams – Dress – Dromos – Dryades – Dudecim Tabulae – Duoviri or Duumviri



gedian in Cicero's time, enjoyed the friend­ship of the best men in Borne. The in­stance of these two men may show what profits could be made by a good actor. Roscius received, for every day that he played, £35, and made an annual income of some £4,350. jEsopus, in spite of his great extravagance, left £175,400 at his death. Besides the regular honoraria, actors, if thought to deserve it, received other and voluntary gifts from the giver of the per­formance. These often took the form of finely wrought crowns of silver or gold work. Masks were not worn until Roscius made their use general. Before his time actors had recourse to false hair of different colours, and paint for the face. The cos-

Deceptive dreams issue from a gate of ivory, true dreams through a gate of horn. The gods above, especially Hermes, have authority over these dream-gods, and send sometimes one, sometimes another, to man­kind. On some occasions they create dream-figures themselves, or appear in per­son under different shapes, in the chamber of the sleeper. The spirits of the departed, too, so long as they are not in the kingdom of Hades, have the power of appearing to the sleeper in dreams. These, the ideas of the Homeric age, survived in the later popular belief. Later poets call dreams the sons of Sleep, and give them separate names. Morpheus, for instance, only appears in various human forms. IkSlfls, called also

(8) * SCENE FROM A ROMAN COMEDY (Fabula Pajliata). (Mural painting from Pompeii, Naples Museum.)

tume in general was modelled on that of actual life, Greek or Roman. As early as the later years of the Republic, a great increase took place in the splendour of the costumes and the general magnificence of the performance. In tragedy, particularly, a new effect was attained by massing the actors in great numbers on the stage. (See further theatre, tragedy, comedy, and satyric drama.)

Dreams (Greek Oneiroi}. According to Hesiod, Dreams are the children of Night, and brothers and sisters of Death and Sleep. Like these they are represented in the Odyssey as dwelling in the far West, near Ocfianus, in the neighbourhood of the sunset and the kingdom of the dead.

Phflbetor, or Terrifyer, assumes the shapes of all kinds of animals as well as that of man : PhantasSs only those of inanimate objects. A god of dreams was subsequently wor­shipped, and represented in works of art, sometimes with Sleep, sometimes alone. He was honoured especially at the seats of dream-oracles and the health-resorts of Ascleplus. (See ARTEMTDORUS, 2; incu-batio ; and Mantic art.)

Dress. See clothing.

Dr6m6s. See gymnastics.

Dry ode's. See nymphs.

DuodScim Tabula. See twelve tables.

Du6vlrl or Duumviri (Italian). A board or commission of 2 men, as e.g. the duoviri cajntules perduelllonis, or duoviri sac-

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All non-public domain material, including introductions, markup, and OCR © 2005 Tim Spalding.