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DIONYSUS.

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people, and the growth of its power, and thus to reconcile them to the Roman yoke. With this view he sets forth the wisdom and the good qualities of the founders of Borne. The book is founded on a thorough study of the authorities, and, in spite of its rhetori­cal tone and of many other defects, forms one of our chief sources of information upon ancient Roman history in its internal and external development. The other remaining works of Dionysius are partly on rhetoric, partly on literary criticism. The rhetorical works are: (a) On the Arrangement of Words, or on the different styles of Greek prose structure ; (6) a treatise on rhetoric, which has certainly not come down to us in its original form. The critical writings are essays on the ancient Greek classics, par­ticularly the orators, and among them Demosthenes; but also on Aristotle, Plato, and Thucydides. They are in part thrown into the form of letters to contemporary Romans of repute.

(4) Dionysius of Alexandria. A Greek poet of the 2nd century a.d. Two hymns of his have survived, one to the Muse CalliSpe, the other to Apollo. A special interest attaches to them from the fact that the principle of their composition has been pre­served in ancient musical notation.

(5) Dionysius Perfiigetes, or the descri-ber of the earth. A Greek poet whose precise country and date have not been ascertained; it is certain only that he did not live earlier than the imperial age of Rome. His surviving work is a Descriptid Orbis Terrarum, or description of the earth, written in well-turned hexameters, and founded mainly on Eratosthenes. This was much read, and translated into Latin by Avienus and Priscian (see these names). To the later Greeks he was the geographer par excellence. The ancient scholia to his book, a paraphrase, and the commentary by Eustathius, testify to the interestwhich itex-cited. (On another author of a geographical poem of the same name, see Dic^EARCHUS.)

Dionysus, sometimes Dionysus (Greek). The god of luxuriant fertility, especially as displayed by the vine; and therefore the god of wine. His native place, according to the usual tradition, was Thebes, where be was born to Zeus by Semele, the daughter of Cadmus. Semele was destroyed by the lightning of her lover, and the child was born after six months. Zeus accordingly sewed it up in his thigh till ripe for birth and then gave it over to Ino, the daughter of Semele. (See athamas.) After her death i

Hermes took the boy to the nymphs of Mount Nysa, or according to another version, to the Hyudes of Dodona, who brought him up, and hid him in a cave away from the anger of Hera. It cannot be ascertained where Mount Nysa was originally supposed to be. In later times the name was transferred to many places where the vine was cultivated, not only in Greece, but in Asia, India, and Africa. When grown up, Dionysus is represented as planting the vine, and wandering through the wide world to spread his worship among men, with his wine-flushed train (thtasos), his nurses and other nymphs, Satyrs, Sileni, and similar woodland deities. Whoever welcomes him kindly, like Icarius in Attica, and (Eneus in jEtolia, receives the gift of wine ; but those who resist him are terribly punished. For with all his appearance of youth and softness, he is a mighty and irresistible god, strong to work wonders. A whole series of fables is apparently based upon the tradi­tion that in many places, where a serious religious ritual existed, the dissolute wor­ship of Dionysus met with a vigorous resistance. (See lycuhgus, minyad^e, pentheus, prietus.)

This worship soon passed from the con­tinent of Greece to the wine-growing islands, and flourished pre-eminently at Naxos. Here it was, according to the story, that the god wedded Ariadne. In the islands a fable was current that he fell in with some Tyrrhenian pirates who took him to their ship and put him in chains. But his fetters fell off, the sails and the mast were wreathed in vine and ivy, the god was changed into a lion, while the seamen throw themselves madly into the sea and were turned into dolphins. In forms akin to this the worship of Dionysus passed into Egypt and far into Asia. Hence arose a fable founded on the story of Alexander's campaigns, that the god passed victoriously through Egypt, Syria, and India as far as the Ganges, with his army of Sileni, Satyrs, and inspired women, the AlcenadSs or Bac­chantes, carrying their wands (thyrsi) crowned with vines and ivy. Having thus constrained all the world to the recognition of his deity, and having, with Heracles, assisted the gods, in the form of a lion, to victory in their war with the Giants, he was taken to Olympus, where, in Homer, he does not appear. From Olympus he descends to the lower world, whence he brings his mother, who is worshipped with him under the name of Thyone (the wild

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