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DIOGENIANUS——DION.

a.d., the author of a work, in ten books, on the lives and doctrines of celebrated Greek philosophers. It is an uncritical compilation from books of earlier and later date, but the richness of the material gathered from lost writings gives it inestimable value for the history of philosophy. Books 1-7 embrace the Ionic philosophers from Thales onwards, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and the Stoics down to Chrysippus. Books 8, 9 treat of the philosophers whom he includes under the name of Italian, PythagSras, EmpgdScles, Heraclitus, the Eleatics and Atomists, Protagfiras, Pyrrho and Epicurus, to the last of whom the whole tenth book is de­voted.

DIfigenlanns. A Greek grammarian of Heraclea. In the middle of the 2nd cen­tury a.d. he made extracts in five books from the great collection of stories compiled about a century before by Pamphilus. These extracts form the foundation of the lexicon of Hesychlus. A collection of proverbs made by him is preserved in an abridged form.

DI6med.es. (1) Son of Ares and Gyrene, king of the BistSne's. (See heracles.)

(2) Son of Tydeus and Dei'py le, and one of the EpigSni. After the death of his maternal grandfather Adrastus, king of Argos, he led 80 ships against Troy, accom­panied by his trusty companions Sthenelus and Euryalus. He appears in Homer, like his father, as a bold, enterprising hero, and a favourite of Athene. In the battle which took place during the absence of Achilles she enables him not only to vanquish all mortals who came in his way, ./Eneas among them, but to attack and wound Ares and Aphrodite. On his meeting with Glaucus in the thick of battle, see glaucus 4. When the Achgeans fly from the field, he throws himself boldly in the path of Hector, and is only checked by the lightning of Zeus, which falls in front of his chariot. In the night after the unsuccessful battle he goes out with Odysseus to explore, kills Colon, the Trojan spy, and murders the sleeping Rhesus, king of Thrace, who had just come to Troy, with twelve of his warriors. In the post-Homeric story, he makes his way again, in company with Odysseus, by an underground passage into the acropolis of Troy, and thence steals the Palladium. This, according to one version, he carried to Argos ; according to another, it was stolen from him by the Athenian king, DemophSon, on his landing in Attica. After the destruction of Troy, according to Homer,

he came safe home on the fourth day of his journey. His wife, jEglale or ^Eglaleia (daughter or granddaughter of Adrastus), was, according to the later legend, tempted to unfaithfulness by Aphrodite in revenge for the wounds inflicted on her by Diomedes. To escape the fate of Agamemnon, Diomedes fled from Argos to jEtolia, his father's home, and there avenged his old grandfather CEneus on his oppressors. Hence he was driven by a storm to Italy, to king Daunus of Apulia, who helps him in war against the Messapians, marries his daughter Euippev and extends his dominion over the plain of Apulia (called after him Campl DlQmldll). According to one story, he died in Daunia, in another he returned to Argos, and died there; in a third, he disappeared in the islands in the Adriatic, named, after him, Inaulat DtfimSdSce, his companions being changed into the herons that live there, the birds of Diomedes. Diomedes was worshipped as a hero not only in Greece, but on the Italian coast of the Adriatic, where his name had in all probability become confused in wor­ship with those of the native deities of horse-taming and navigation. The founda­tion of the Apulian city of Argyrippa (later called Arpi) was specially attributed to him. In his native city, Argos, his shield was carried through the streets with the Palla­dium at the festival of Athene, and his statue washed in the river Inachus.

(3) A Roman writer on grammar of the last part of the 4th century A.D. He was the author of an Ars Grammdtlca, in three books, founded on the same ancient authorities as the work of his contemporary Charisius, with whom he often agrees verbatim. His third book derives special value from the notices on literary history taken from Suetonius.

Di&meia. An Athenian festival in honour of Heracles. (See heracles.)

DIon (Lat. Din). (1) Dio Chrysostdmus Coc.ceius. A Greek rhetorician and philo­sopher, born of a respectable family at Prusa in Bithynia, about the middle of the 1st cen­tury a.d. He began his career by devoting himself to rhetoric. Driven from his native ocuntry by domestic intrigues, he lived for a long time in Egypt, where he obtained the favour of the future emperor Vespasian. Afterwards he lived in Rome under Domi-tian, until he was banished from Italy and Bithynia for his friendship with a person in high place who had incurred the sus­picion of the emperor. The period of his banishment he spent, according to the com-

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