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TV1 rayed crown, the insigne of the deified emperors, was not worn by the emperors of the 1st and 2nd century a.d. Golden crowns were originally the free offerings of provincials and allies to victorious generals for the celebration of their triumphs. But from this custom there arose, even in republican times, the habit of compelling a contribution of money (aurum cdronarium) to the governor of the province. During the imperial age this contribution was on exceptional occasions offered as a present to the emperors, but it was often also made compulsory.
Among the Greeks a crown (stephtinos) was often an emblem of office. At Athens, for instance, a crown of bay was worn by the archons in office, the senators (bouleu-tai), and the orators while speaking. It was also the emblem of victory at the games, and a token of distinction for citizens of merit (see theatre). Such crowns of honour were made originally of olive branches, but later of gold. The honour of a crown could be conferred by the people or the senate, or by corporations and foreign states. The latter would often present a crown to the whole commonwealth. If the people or senate presented the crown, the presentation took place in the great assembly, or in the senate house, but not in the theatre, except by special decree.
Since crowns played a considerable part as ornaments at religious rites and as well at festivals and banquets, the trade of crown-making (mostly in women's hands) | was naturally extensive. The art of making what were called winter crowns of dry flowers was also understood. Artificial flowers, made of thin strips of painted wood, were also used.
Coronla (Ktirdnis). Sue asclepibs.
Corpus luris Civills. The name of the j great collection of authorities on Roman law, made by the lawyer Tribonianus, of Side in Pamphylia, at the instance of the Eastern Emperor Justinian (527—565 A.D.). To this collection we owe the preservation of the treasures of the ancient jurisprudence, which must certainly otherwise have i been lost. The Corpus luris consists of four parts:
(1) Codex lustlnianeus, called rcpetltce prtxlccttonis, as being the revised edition of a code now lost, but which had appeared in
529. This was published in 534, and contains in twelve books the imperial law (ids principals), or the constttutiones of the emperors since Hadrian.
(2) PandfCtce, or Digesta. The law of the jurists (ius vStus). These, published a.d. 533, are extracts from the works of thirty-nine ancient jurists, arranged in fifty books, according to subjects.
(3) Institutiones. A handbook of jurisprudence, founded mostly upon Gains, and published in the same year.
(4) NovellcE (constitutiones), or supplementary ordinances of Justinian, mostly in Greek. These are preserved only in private collections of various compass, one of which, the Authentfcum or Liber AuthenticOnini, was recognised as the authorized text, and gives the Greek rescripts in a Latin version.
CSrybantfis (Korybantgs). The mythical attendants of the Phrygian goddess Rhea Cj'bele, who were supposed to accompany the goddess with wild dances and intoxicating music, while she wandered by torchlight over the forest-clad mountains. The name was further given in Phrygia to the eunuch priests of the goddess. (See rhea.)
Corycus (Gr. KdrykOs). See ball, games
Cosmi (Kosmoi). Sec gerusia.
CSthurnus, or more correctly Coturnus (Gr. Kothornos). A Greek name for a high shoe or buskin with several soles. It covered the whole foot, and rose as high as the middle of the leg. It was made so as to fit either foot, and was generally fastened in front with red straps. The cothurnus was properly a hunting boot, but jEschylus made it part of the costume of his tragic actors to give them a stature above the average. At the same time the hair was dressed high in order to maintain the proportion of the figure. The cothurnus was also used in the Roman tragedy. (See Soccus.)
Cottabus (KotidbSs). A Greek game very popular at drinking bouts. The player lay on the couch, and in that position tried to throw a few drops of wine in as high a curve as possible, at a mark, without spilling any of the wine. The mark was called kottabeion, and was a bronze goblet or saucer, and it was a point to make a noise when hitting it. On the kottabeirm was fastened a little image or a bust of Hermes, which was called Manes, and which the player had to hit first with the wine. The wine was supposed to make a sound both in hitting the figure and in falling afterwards into the