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On this page: Colosseum – Colossus or Rhodes – Columbarium

150

COLOSSEUM——COLUMBARIUM.

city was viewed as one of mutual affection. Any differences that arose were made up, if possible, by peaceful means, war being deemed excusable only in oases of extreme necessity. The charter of foundation con­tained general provisions for the arrange­ment of the affairs of the colony, and also some special enactments. The constitution of the mother-city was usually adopted by the colony, but the new city remained poli­tically independent. If the colony sent out a fresh colony on its own account, the mother-city was generally consulted, or was at least requested to furnish a leader. The Cleruchl formed a special class of Greek colonists (see cleruohi). The trade fac­tories set up in foreign countries (in Egypt, for instance) were somewhat different from the ordinary colonies, the members retain­ing the right of domicile in their own fatherland.

(2) Roman. It was an old custom in Italy to send out colonies for the purpose of securing new conquests. The Romans, ac­cordingly, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of their own citizens in conquered towns as a kind of garrison. These bodies would consist partly of Roman citizens, usually to the number of three hundred, partly of members of the Latin confederacy, in larger numbers. The third part of the conquered territory was handed over to the settlers. The colonice clvlum Romanorum (colonies of Roman citizens) were specially in­tended to secure the two sea-coasts of Italy, and were hence called colonice marltimce. The colonice Latlnce, of which there was a far greater number, served the same purpose for the mainland.

The duty of leading the colonists and founding the settlement was entrusted to a commission usually consisting of three members, and elected by the people. These men continued to stand in the relation of patrons (patroni) to the colony after its foundation. The colonists entered the conquered city in mili­tary array, preceded by banners, and the foundation was celebrated with special solemnities. The colonice were free from taxes, and had their own constitution, a copy of the Ro­man, electing from their own body their senate and other officers of state. To this constitution the original inhabitants had to submit. The colonies civium Ro-

inanorutn retained the Roman citizenship, and were free from military service, their position as out-posts being regarded as an equivalent. The members of the colonies Latince served among the socii, and pos­sessed the so-called ius Latinum (see latini). This secured to them the right of acquiring property (commercium) and settle­ment in Rome, and, under certain conditions, the power of becoming Roman citizens; though in course of time these rights under­went many limitations.

From the time of the Gracchi the colonies lost their military character. Colonization came to be regarded as a means of providing for the poorest class of the Roman populace. After the time of Sulla it was adopted as a way of granting land to veteran soldiers. The right of founding colonies was taken away from the people by Caesar, and passed into the hands of the emperors, who used it (mainly in the provinces) for the exclusive purpose of establishing military settlements, partly with the old idea of securing con­quered territory. It was only in excep­tional cases that the provincial colonies enjoyed the immunity from taxation which was granted to those in Italy.

C61osseum. See amphitheatre.

Cfllossns of Rhodes. See chares.

Columbarium. Properly a dove-cote. The word was metaphorically applied to a sub-

COLUMBARIUM OF THE FREEDMEN OP OCTAVIA. (Near the Porta Latina, Rome.)

terranean vault provided with rows of small niches, lying one above the other, and in­tended for the reception of the urns contain-

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