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This was a more complicated set of straps, reaching as far as over the ankle, where they were fastened. They sometimes had leather added at the sides and heel, so as to resemble a shoe. Close shoes of various kinds, fastened over the foot, were also worn by men and women. There were, besides, several kinds of boots, among which may be mentioned the endromts and cothurnus (sec endromis, cothurnus).
Among the Romans, men and women when at home, and generally in private life, wore a sandal (sSlSa), which was only taken off at meals; but a respectable Roman would hardly show himself barefooted out of doors. With the toga went the shoe called calcSus, of which there were differents kinds, varying according to rank (see calceus). Ladies usually, when out of doors, wore shoes of white or coloured leather, which formed an important part of their toilette, especially under the Empire, when the sexes rivalled each other in the splendour of their shoes, the men appearing in white and red leather, the emperor and great personages wearing shoes adorned with gold and even with jewels. Among the Romans generally, a great variety of shoes was in use, many of them borrowed from other countries (see crepida, Soccus). Wooden shoes (sculpo-nSos) were worn by slaves and peasants. For the military boot in use under the Empire, see caliga.
Coverings for the head. The upper classes in Greece and Italy generally went bareheaded. It was only when long in the open air, as on journeys, or while hunting, or in the theatre, that they used the caps and hats worn by artisans, country folk, and fishermen (see petasus, pilleus, causia). In Rome, for protection against sun and storm, they adopted from the northern countries the cucuttus or cuculllo, a hood fastened to the pcenula or lacerna. The head was often protected, in the case both of men and women, by drawing the top of the garment over the head. Besides kerchiefs and caps, women also wore veils. which in some cases, as at Thebes (and as now in the East), covered the face as far as the eyes. Roman ladies would seldom appear in the street uncovered. A common covering was the riclnlum, which also served as a wrapper. This was, in later times, only worn at religious ceremonials. It was a square cloth fastened to the head, which ladies folded round them, throwing it over the left arm and left shoulder. For
protection against the sun ladies carried umbrellas (Gr. skiadeiun, Lat. umbrdcu-Imn, umbella), or made their servants carry them. Fans (Gr. rhlpos, Lat. flabellum) were likewise in common use. These were made of gaily-painted bits of wood, and the feathers of peacocks or other birds, and were generally in the shape of leaves.
Ornaments. Rings were in fashion both among men and women. The only other metal ornaments which men would have any opportunity for wearing in ordinary life were the clasps or brooches (fibulce) used for fastening dresses or girdles. These were of bronze, silver, or gold, and often adorned with costly jewels. Besides rings and clasps, women wore needles in their hair, and ear-rings, necklaces, and bracelets on their wrists and arms, sometimes even on their ankles. The trinkets that have been preserved from antiquity exhibit the greatest conceivable variety of form. One of the commonest forms for a bracelet is that of a snake, surrounding the arm once, or in several spirals. An equal variety is observable in the ornamentations of pearls, precious stones, and the like.
Clotho (Gr. Rlotho). See m(erm.
Clymtae (Gr. KlymSnl) (in Greek mythology). (1) Daughter of Catreus, wife of Naupllus, and mother of Palamedes. (See nauplius.)
(2) Daughter of Oceanus, and mother of Phaethon by Helifis. (See phaethon.)
Clytsemnestra (Gr. Klytaimnestra; more correctly Klytaimlstra}. Daughter of Tyn-darSus, and wife of Agamemnon. With the aid of her lover, ^gisthus, she murdered her husband, and was, in turn, put to death by her son, Orestes. (See agamemnon, ^egisthus, and orestes.)
Clytla (Klytla). In Greek mythology an ocean nymph, beloved by the Sun-god, who deserted her. She was changed into the heliotrope, a flower which is supposed always to turn its head in the direction of the sun's movement.
Cficalus (KOkalos). In Greek mythology, the king of Camlcus in Sicily, who fave Dsedalus a friendly welcome when ying from the pursuit of Minos. Cocalus (or his daughters, according to another account) suffocated Minos in a hot bath.
Cock-fighting. See venationes. at end.
Cocytus (Gr. K6kyt6s). See hades, realm of.
Coemptlo. Properly " a joint taking," so " a joint purchase." One of the three forms of marriage among the Romans. It was 80