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Cllentes. This was the name for such inhabitants of Borne as had lost, or given up, the citizenship of their own cities, and had settled in Roman territory. Here, having no legal rights, they were compelled, in order to secure their personal freedom, to seek the protection of some Roman citizen, a term which, in ancient times, could only mean a patrician. The relation thus set on foot was called clientrla, and was inherited by the descendants of both parties. Accord-ingby the client entered into the family of his patron (patronus), took his gentile name, and was admitted to take part in the family sacrifices. The patron made over to him a piece of land as a means of support, protected him from violence, represented him at law, and buried him after his death. The client, on his part, accompanied his patron abroad and on military service, gave his advice in legal and domestic matters, and made a contribution from his property if his patron were endowing a daughter, or had to be ransomed in war, or to pay a fine. The relation between patron and client is also illustrated by the fact that neither party could bring an action against the other in a court of law, or bear witness against him, or vote against him, or appear against him as advocate. A man's duty to his client was more binding than his duty to his blood relations ; and any violation of it was regarded as a capital offence.
When Servius Tullius extended the rights of citizenship to the clients as well as to the plebeians, the bond between patron and client still continued in force, although it gradually relaxed with the course of time. At the end of the republic age, the status of client, in the proper sense of the word, had ceased to exist. Under the Empire the dientela was a mere external relation between the rich and the poor, the great and the obscure. It involved no moral obligation on either side, but was based merely on the vanity of the one party, and the necessity of the other. It was no unusual thing to find people who had no settled means of subsistence trying, by flattery and servile behaviour, to win the favour of the great. Even philosophers and poets, like Statius and Martial, are found in this position. The client performs certain services, calls on his patron in the morning, accompanies him on public occa- . sions, and is in turn invited to his table, receives presents from him, and (if he can get it) a settled provision. Instead of inviting their numerous clients, the rich
would often present them with a small sum of money called sportfda. The relation was entirely a free one, and could be dissolved j at pleasure by either party.
In the republican age whole communities, and even provinces, when they had submitted to the Roman yoke, would sometimes become clients of a single patronus. In this case the paironus would usually be the conquering general. Marcellus, for instance, the conqueror of Syracuse, and his descendants, were patrons of Sicily. The practical advantages which were secured to a foreign community by this permanent representation at Rome are obvious. Accordingly we find that, under the Empire, even cities which stood to Rome in no relation of dependence, such as colonies and municipia, sometimes selected a patronus. The patronus was, in such cises, always chosen from among the senators or Iquttes.
Cline (Gr. Rline). See meals.
Clio (Gr. Klcio). See muses.
Cllpfius. See shield.
Clitarchus (Gr. Kleitarchos). A Greek historian, son of the historian Dinon. He flourished about 300 b.c., and was the author of a great work, in at least twelve books, upon Alexander the Great. He was no-' toriously untrustworthy, and inclined to believe in the marvellous; his style was turgid and highly rhetorical; but his narrative was so interesting that he was the most popular of all the writers on Alexander. The Romans were very fond of his book, which was indeed the main authority for the narratives of Diodonis, Trogus Pompeius, and Curtius. A number of fragments of it still survive.
Clitus (Kleltos) (in Greek mythology). Son of Mantius, and grandson of Melampus: loved and carried off by Eos. See Eos.
Cldaca. A vaulted subterranean channel for carrying off drainage of every kind. As early as the 6th century b.c. Rome had an extensive system of sewers for draining the marshy ground lying between the hills of the city. By this the sewage was carried into a main drain (Cloaca Maxima) which emptied itself into the Tiber. Part of this sewer, in length quite 1,020 feet, is still in existence, and after a lapse of 2,500 years, goes on fulfilling its original purpose. The sewer, which is nearly twenty feet wide, is covered by a vaulted roof of massive squares of tufa, in which an arch of travertine is inserted at intervals of 12 feet 2 inches. The original height was 10 feet 8 inches, but has been reduced to 6 feet