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or Rape of Proserpine, an unfinished epic in which his descriptive power is most brilliantly displayed, his most important poems are (1) De III, IV, VI, Consulata Honorii; (2) De Nuptlls Honorii Fes-nenmna • (3) EpUMldmlum de Nuptiis Honorii et Marine ; (4) De Bella Gilddnlco ; (5) De Consulatu Stilichonis ; (6) De Bella Pollentlno ; (7) Laus Slrence, Serena being Stilicho's wife. He also wrote epistles in verse, a series of minor pieces, narrative and descriptive, and a Gigantomdchla, of which a fragment has been preserved. Claudius ftnadrigarlus. See annalists. Cieanthes (Gr. Kleanthes). A Greek philosopher, native of Assos in Asia Minor. He was originally a boxer, and while attending at Athens the lectures of Zeno, the founder of the Stoic philosophy, ho got a livelihood at night by carrying water. He was Zeno's disciple for nineteen years, and in 260 b.c. succeeded him as head of the Stoic school. He died in his eighty-first year by voluntary starvation. A beautiful hymn to Zeus is the only one of his writings that has come down to us.
demons (Titus Flavins) A Greek ecclesiastical writer, born at Alexandria about 150 a.d. Originally a heathen, he gained, in the course of long travels, a wide knowledge of philosophy. Finding no satisfaction in it, he became a Christian, and about 190 a.d. was ordained priest in Alexandria, and chosen to preside over a school of catechumens there. The persecution under Septlmius Severus having compelled him to take flight, he founded a school in Jerusalem, and came afterwards to Antioch. He died in 218 a.d. His writings contributing as they do to our knowledge of ancient philosophy, have an important place, not only in Christian, but also in profane literature. This is especially true of the eight books called Stromata ; a title which properly means " many coloured carpets," or writings of miscellaneous contents.
CleSmenes (Kleomenes). An Athenian sculptor, who probably flourished in the i Augustan age. The celebrated Vemis di Medici, now at Florence, is his work. [He is described on the pedestal as «on of Apollodorus. The Germanlcus of the Louvre was the work of his son, who bore the same name.j
Cl§6patra (KlSSpatra) (in Greek mythology). (l)Daughter of BSreas and Orithyia, and wife of Phjneus. (Sec phineos.)
(2) Daughter of Idas, and wife of Meleager. (See meleager.)
Clepsydra (Klcpsydra). A water-clock, or earthenware vessel filled with a certain measure of water, and having a hole in the bottom of a size to ensure the water running away within a definite space of time. Such water-clocks were used in the Athenian law courts, to mark the time allotted to the speakers. They were first introduced in Rome in 159 B.C., and used in the courts there in the same way. In the field they were used to mark the night-watches. The i invention of the best kind of water-clock was attributed to Plato. In this the hours were marked by the height of the water flowing regularly into a vessel. This was done in one of two ways. (1) A dial was placed above the vessel, the hand of which was connected by a wire with a cork floating on the top of the water. (2) The vessel was transparent, and had vertical lines drawn upon it, indicating certain typical days in the four seasons or in the twelve months. These lines were divided into twelve sections, corresponding to the position which the water was experimentally found to take at each of the twelve hours of night or day on each of these typical days. It must be remembered that the ancients always divided the night and day into twelve equal hours each, which involved a variation in the length of the hours corresponding to the varying length of the day and night.
Cleruchla (Gr. KleroucMa). A kind of Greek colony, which differed from the ordinary colonial settlement in the fact that the settlers remained in close connection with their mother-city. The Athenian cleruchice are the only ones of which we have any detailed knowledge. A conquered territory was divided into lots of land, which were assigned to the poorer citizens as clSruchZ, or "holders of lots." The original inhabitants would be differently treated according to circumstances. In many cases they were compelled to emigrate; sometimes the men were killed, and the women and children enslaved; but ordinarily the old inhabitants would become the tenants of the settlers, and take, generally, a less privileged position. The settlers formed a separate community, elected their own officials, and managed their local affairs; but they continued to be Athenian citizens, with all the rights and duties of their position. They remained under the authority of Athens, and had to repair to the Athenian courts for justice in all important matters. Ciibanus (Gr. Kttbanos). See bakers.