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made of thin pieces of wood, plates of metal, or ivory, was generally of a quadrangular, but sometimes of an oval shape; and was deeply vaulted at the back. The arms, which were broad were hollow, like the sounding-board. As the instrument was rather heavy, and the player had to stand while performing on it, it was generally provided with straps for supporting it, so as to leave the player's hands free. The phorminx, generally regarded as an attribute of Apollo, seems to have been a special variety of the cithara. It is generally spoken of as " shrill-toned." Different forms of the cithara are given in the engraving. (For further details, and for the manner of playing on the cithara, nee lyra )
Civitas. The technical Latin word for the right of citizenship. This was originally possessed, at Rome, by the patricians only. The plebeians were not admitted to share it at all until the time of Servius Tullius, and not to full civic rights until b.c. 337. In its fullest comprehension the civitas included: (1) the ifts suffragii, or right of voting for magistrates: (2) the ius honomm, or right of being elected to a magistracy; (3) the ius provOcatlonis or right of appeal to the people, and in later times to the emperor, against the sentences passed by magistrates affecting life or property; (4) the ius conubll, or right to contract a legal marriage; (5) the ius commercli, or right to hold property in the Roman community. The civitas was obtained either by birth from Roman parents, or by manumission (see manumissio), or by presentation. The right of presentation belonged originally to the kings, afterwards to the popular assemblies, and particularly to the cdnntla tributa, and last of all to the emperors. The civitas could be lost by demtnutio capltts (see deminutio capitis). The aerariz, so called, had an imperfect civitas, without the ius suffragii and ius honorum. Outside the circle of the civitas stood the slaves and the foreigners or pfrfgnnl (see peregrin:). The latter included: (1) strangers who stood in no international relations with Rome ; (2) the allies, or sdclt, among whom the Latlni held a privileged place (see latini) ; (3) the ileditlctl, or those who belonged to nations conquered in war.
Though the Roman citizenship was conferred upon all the free inhabitants of the empire in '212 a.d. by the emperor Caracalla, the grades of it were not all equalized, nor was it until the time of Justinian that
civitas and libertas became convertible terms.
Classlarli or dasslci (from classis, a fleet).
The crews of the Roman fleet. In the
republican age the rowers (rSmlges) were
slaves, and the sailors (nautai) were partly
contributed by the allies (sictl navales),
: partly levied from among the Roman citizens
j of the lowest orders, the citizens of the
j maritime colonies, and the freedmen. Under
the Empire the fleets were manned by
freedmen and foreigners, who could not
obtain the citizenship until after twenty-six
j years' service. In the general military
i system, the navy stood lowest in respect of
pay and position. No promotion to higher
posts was open to its officers, as those were
monopolized by the army. In later times,
a division of the marines stationed at
Misenum and Ravenna was appointed to
garrison duty in Rome. This division was
| also used in time of war in repairing the
roads for the armies. In Rome the marines
were employed, among other things, in
stretching the awnings over the theatre.
Classlcum. The signal given by the buclna or horn for the meeting of the cOmltta centuridta at Rome, and for the meeting of the soldiers in camp, especially before they marched out to battle.
Claudlanus (Claudius). A Latin poet, born at Alexandria in the second half of the 4th century a.d. In 395 a.d. he came to Rome. Here he won the favour of the powerful Vandal Stlllcho, and on the proposal of the senate was honoured with a statue by the emperors Arcadlus and H6norlus. The inscription on this statue is still in existence (Mommsen, Inscrip-> tiones Begni Ncapolitani, No. 6794). His patron Stilicho fell in 408, and Claudian, apparently, did not survive him. We have express evidence that the poet was not a Christian. He was familiar with Greek and Latin literature, and had considerable poetical gifts, including a mastery both of language and metre. These gifts raise him far above the crowd of the later Latin poets, although the effect of his writing is marred by tasteless rhetorical ornament and exaggerated flattery of great men. His political poems, in spite of their lau-j datory colouring, have considerable historical value. Most of them are written in praise of Honorius and of Stilicho, for whom he had a veneration as sincere as was his hatred of Rufinus and Eutrfipius. Against the latter he launched a number of invectives. Besides the Raptus Proserpina;,