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On this page: Chthonian Gods – Chytroi – Cicero



Chth6nian Gods (from Chthon, the earth). The deities who rule under the earth or who are connected with the lower world, as Hades, Pluto, Persgphone, Demeter, Diony­sus, Hecate, and Hermes.

Chytroi (Feast of Pots) the third day of the Anthesteria. (See DiONYSiA.)

Clcfiro. (1) Marcus Tvllius Cicero. The celebrated Roman orator, born at Arplnum, January 3rd, 106 b.c. He was son of Mar­cus Tullius Cicero and Helvia, his family being of equestrian rank, but not yet ennobled by office. With his brother Quintus he received his education in Rome, where he soon had an opportunity of hear­ing and admiring the two most celebrated orators of the day, Crassus and Antonius. He took the toga vlrllis in 90 b.c., and, while practising rhetorical exercises, de­voted himself with ardour to the study of law. In 89 he served on his first campaign in the Marsian War. After this he began his studies in philosophy, mainly under the guidance of the Academic philosopher, Philo of Larissa. The presence of the Rhodian rhetorician Molo in Rome, and afterwards the instruction in dialectic given him by the Stoic Diod6tus, gave him the opportunity he desired for furthering his training as an orator. Having thus care­fully prepared himself for his future voca­tion during the period of the civil distur­bances, he started on his career as an orator under Sulla's dictatorship. He began with civil or private cases. One of his earliest speeches, the Pro Quinctio, still survives. This oration [in which he defends his client on the question of his conduct in a partner­ship] he delivered in 81 b.c., in nis 26th year. In the following year he first appeared in a causa publlca, and not on the side of the prosecution, the usual course for begin­ners, but on that of the defence. His client was Sextus Roscius of Ameria, accused of murdering his own father. This speech laid the foundation of Cicero's fame, and not only because it was successful. People ad­mired the intrepidity with which Cicero stood up against ChrysfigSnus, the favourite of the omnipotent dictator.

In the following year, for the sake of his delicate health, Cicero started on a two years' tour in Greece and Asia, taking every oppor­tunity of finishing his education as a philo­sopher and orator. For philosophy he had recourse to the most celebrated professors at Athens: for rhetoric he went to Rhodes, to his former instructor, Molo. In b.c. 77 he returned to Rome, his health restored, and

his intellect matured. In this year he mar­ried Terentia. His career as an advocate he pursued with such success that he was unanimously elected quaestor in 76 b.c. He was stationed at Lilybseum, in Sicily, and administered his office unimpeachably. After his return he entered the senate, and developed an extraordinary activity as a speaker. In consequence he was elected to the curule sedileship in 70 b.c. It was in

'cicero (Madrid). M-CICERO-AN -LXIIII.

this year that the Sicilians, remembering the conscientiousness and unselfishness he had displayed in his quaestorship, begged him to lead the prosecution against Verres. For three years this man had, in the most infamous manner, ill-treated and plundered the province. Cicero had to contend with all kinds of hindrances thrown in his way

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