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and hastati still remained, but only for the centurions and within the cohort, which accordingly always included a prior and posterior of the three ranks in question. The method of promotion, which was perhaps not regularly fixed until the time of the standing armies of the Empire, seems to have been the old one, the centurions passing up by a lower stage through all 10 cohorts, and the higher stage always beginning in the tenth. The first centurion of each cohort probably led it, and was admitted to the council of war. The promotion usually ceased with the advancement to the rank of primipilus. If a centurion who had reached this point did not choose to retire, he was employed on special services, as commandant of a fortress for instance. Under the Empire, however, exceptional cases occurred of promotion to higher posts.
Cephalus (Gr. KSpMISs). In Greek mythology the sou of Hermes and Herse, the daughter of Cgcrops king of Athens. According to another story he was son of De'ion of Phocis and Diomede, and migrated from Phocis to Th<5ricus in Attica. He was married to Procris, the daughter of Erechtheus, and lived with her in the closest affection. But while hunting one day in the mountains, he was carried away for his beauty by Eos, the goddess of the dawn. To estrange his wife's heart from him, Eos sent him to her in the form of a stranger, who, by the offer of splendid presents, succeeded in making her waver in her fidelity. Cephalus revealed himself, and Procris, in shame, fled to Crete, where she lived with Artgmis as a huntress. Artemis (or, according to another story, Minos), gave her a dog as swift as the wind, and a spear that never missed its aim. On returning to Attica she met Cephalus hunting. He failed to recognise her, and offered his love if she would give him her dog and her spear. She then revealed herself, and, the balance of offence being thus redressed, the lovers were reconciled and returned to their old happy life together. But Procris at last fell a victim to her jealousy. When Cephalus went out hunting, he used often to call on Aura, or the breeze, to cool his heat. Procris was told of this, and, supposing Aura to be some nymph, hid herself in a thicket to watch him. Hearing a rustling near him, and thinking a wild beast was in the thicket, Cephalus took aim with the unerring spear which Procris had given him, and slew his wife. For this murder he was banished, and fled to Bceotia. Here he assisted Amphitryon in the chase
of the Taumessian fox; and both his dog and the hunted animal were turned to stone by Zeus. Subsequently he joined Amphitryon in his expedition against the Telebose, and, according to one account, became sovereign of the Cephallenians. According to another he put an end to his life by leaping from the promontory of Leucate, on which he had founded a temple to Apollo.
Cepheus (Gr. Kepheus). (1) The son of Belus, king of Ethiopia, husband of Cassio-pea and father of Andrfimeda. (See andromeda.)
Ceph!s6d6tus (Gr. KephlsOdotOs). A Greek artist, born at Athens, and connected with the family of Praxiteles. He flourished towards the end of the 4th century b.c. The celebrated statue now in the Glyptothek at Munich, representing Eirene with the infant Plutus in her arms, is probably a copy of a work by Cephisodotus (see cut, under eikene). There was another Cephisodotus, a contemporary of his, and the sou of Praxiteles, who was likewise in high repute as a sculptor.
Cer (Gr. KSr). In Greek mythology, a goddess of death, especially of violent death in battle. In Hesiod she is the daughter of Nyx (night), and sister of H5r5s (the doom of death), Hypnos (sleep), and Dreams. The poets commonly speak of several Keres, goddesses of different kinds of death. Homer and Hesiod represent them as clothed in garments stained by human blood, and dragging the dead and wounded about on the field of battle. Every man has his allotted Doom, which overtakes him at the appointed time. Achilles alone has two, with the power to choose freely between them. In later times the Keres are represented generally as powers of destruction, and as associated with the Erinyes, goddesses of revenge and retribution.
CerbSrus (Gr. KerbSrGs). In Greek mythology, the three-headed dog, with hair of snakes, son of Typhaon and Echidna, who watches the entrance of the lower world. He gives a friendly greeting to all who enter, but if any one attempts to go out, he seizes him and holds him fast. When Heracles, at the command of Eurystheus, brought him from below to the upper world, the poisonous aconite sprang up from the foam of his mouth. (See the cuts to the article hades.) Cercls (Gr. TCerMs). See theatre.