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so far as this part of their duties was con­cerned, they were irresponsible, being bound only in conscience by the oath which they took on entering upon and laying down their office. Having no executive powers, they had no lictors, but only messengers (viatOrls) and heralds (prcecones). Their insignia were thesella curulis and a purple toga. The collegial character of the office was so pronounced, that if one censor died, the other abdicated. From the simple act of taking the census and putting up the new list of citizens, their functions were in course of time extended, so as to include a number of very important duties. Among these must be mentioned in particular a general superintendence of conduct (regimen mOrum'). In virtue of this they had the power of affixing a stigma on any citizen, regardless of his position, for any conceiv­able offence for which there was no legal punishment. Such offences were neglect of one's property, celibacy, dissolution of marriage, bad training or bad treatment of children, undue severity to slaves and clients, irregular life, abuse of power in office, impiety, perjury, and the like. The offender might be punished with degrada­tion ; that is, the censors could expel a man from the senate or ordo equester, or they could transfer him from a country tribe into one of the less respectable city tribes, and thus curtail his right of voting, or again they could expel him from the tribes altogether, and thus completely deprive him of the right of voting. This last pen­alty might be accompanied by a fine in the shape of additional taxation. The censors had also the power of issuing edicts against practices wrhich threatened the simplicity of ancient Roman manners; for instance, against luxury. These edicts had not the force of law, but their transgression might be punished by the next censors. The effect of the censorial stigma and punish­ment lasted until the next census. The consent of both censors was required to ratify it, and it directly affected men only, not women. The censors exercised a special superintendence over the iquttes and the senate. They had the lectio senatus, or power of ejecting unworthy members and of passing over new candidates for the sena­torial rank, as, for instance, those who had ! held curule offices. The equites had to pass singly, each leading his horse, before : the censors in the forum, after the comple­tion of the general census. An honourable j dismissal was then given to the superan-

nuated or the infirm; if an eques was now found, or had previously been found, un­worthy of his order (as for neglecting to care for his horse), he was expelled from it. The vacant places were filled up from the number of such individuals as appeared from the j general census to be suitable. There were certain other duties attached to the censor­ship, for the due performance of which they ware responsible to the people, and subject to the authority of the senate and the veto of the tribunes. (1) The letting of the public domain lands and taxes to the highest bidder. (2) The acceptance of tenders from the lowest bidder for works to be paid for by the State. In both these cases the period was limited to five years. (3) Superinten­dence of the construction and maintenance of public buildings and grounds, temples, bridges, sewers, aqueducts, streets, monu­ments, and the like.

After 167 B.C. Roman citizens were freed from all taxation, and since the time of Marius the liability to military service was made general. The censorship was now a superfluous office, for its original object, the census, was hardly necessary. Sulla disliked the censors for their power of meddling in matters of private conduct, and accordingly in his constitution of 81 b.c. the office was, if not formally abolished, practically super­seded. It was restored in 70 b.c. in the consulship of Pompey and Crasstis, and con­tinued to exist for a long time, till under the Empire it disappeared as a separate office. The emperor kept in his own hands the right of taking the census. He took over also the other functions of the censor, especially the supervision of morals, a pro­ceeding in which he had Caesar's example to support him. The care of public buildings, however, he committed to a special body.

Censorlnus. A Roman scholar of the 3rd century a.d. Besides some grammatical treatises now lost, he was the author of a short book, De Die Natall (" On the Day of Birth "), in which he treats of the influence of the stars on the birth of men, of the various stages of life, and the different modes of reckoning time. In the course of the work he gives a number of valuable historical and chronological notices.

Census. After the establishment of the constitution of Servius Tullius the number of Roman citizens was ascertained every five years (though not always with per­fect regularity) to determine their legal liability to the payment of taxes and to military service. This process was called

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