The Ancient Library

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the whole length of the camp into two parts. This road was 50 feet in width, and ended in two gates, the porta d&cu-mdna in front, and the porta proztdrta on the side opening towards the enemy. In the front part were encamped the two legions, with their allied contingents. They lay in three double rows of tents on each side of the via preetoria, which made a right angle with the via principalis. Its whole length was divided by roads 50 feet in width, while across it, from one lateral rampart to the other, ran the via quintana. The front side of the rows of tents was turned towards the intervening roads. Starting from the via preetoria, the first two lines of tents on each side contained the cavalry and infantry of one legion each, while the third row, lying nearest to the rampart, contained the cavalry and infantry of the allied contingents. In the hinder part of the camp, directly upon the via principalis, and on both sides of the via prcetoria, were the tents of the twelve military tribunes, opposite the four ranks of the legions. On both sides were the tents of the prcefecti of the allied contingents, placed in the same way opposite those of the troops under their command. Then followed the headquarters, or praitorlum, a space 200 feet square, intersected by the via prcetoria. In this was the general's tent (tabernaculum); in front was the altar on which the general sacrificed, on the left the augurale for taking the auspices, and on the right the tribunal. This was a bank of earth covered with turf, on which the general took his stand when addressing the troops, or administering justice. Right of the prcetorium was the qucestdrium, con­taining the quarters of the paymasters, and the train of artillery. On the left was the forum, a meeting place for the soldiers. Be­tween these spaces and the lateral ramparts were the tents of the select troops who com­posed the body-guard of the general. Those of the cavalry had their front turned in­wards, while those of the infantry were turned towards the wall. The tents of the picked allied troops occupied the hinder part of the camp, which was bounded by a cross road 100 feet in breadth. The tents of the cavalry looked inwards, those of the in­fantry towards the rampart. The auxiliary troops were posted at the two angles of this space. The rampart was divided from the tents by an open space 200 feet in width. This was specially intended to facilitate the march of the troops at their entrance and exit.

The construction of the fortifications always began before the general's tent was pitched. The legionaries constructed the rampart and ditch in front and rear, while the allies did the same on either side. The stakes required for the formation of an abattis on the outer side of the wall were carried by the soldiers themselves on the march The whole work was carried on under arms. The watches (exciiblce and vigittoe) were kept with great strictness both by day and night. The vigilice, or night-watches, were relieved four times. the trumpet sounding on each occasion. The posts of each night-watch were in­spected by four Roman Squitls. The pass­word for the night was given by the general. Bach gate was guarded by outposts of infan­try and cavalry, the light-armed troops (vett-tes) being also distributed as sentries along the ramparts. When the camp was to break up, three signals were given; at the first, the tents were taken down and packed up ; at the second, they were put upon beasts of burden and in wagons, and at the third the army began its march.

After the time of Polybius the Roman military system underwent many changes, which involved alterations in the arrange­ments of the camp, but we have no trust­worthy information on this subject in detail until the beginning of the 2nd century a.d. The treatise of one Hyginus on castra-metation gives the following statements as to the practice of his time. The ordinary form of a camp was that of a rectangle, the length of which was about a third part greater than the breadth. In former times the legions were posted inside the camp; but now, being regarded as the most trust­worthy troops, they were encamped along the whole line of ramparts, the width of which was now limited to 60 feet. They were separated from the interior of the camp by a road 30 feet wide (via sdgiilaris), running parallel to the line of ramparts. The interior was now divided, not into two, but into three main sections. The midmost of these lay between the via principalis, which was 60, and the via quintana, which was 40 feet wide. It was occupied by the prcetorium and the troops of the guard, and waa called the wing of the praitorium (latSrdprcetorii). The auxiliary troops were" stationed in what was now the front part, or prcetentura, between the via principalis and the porta prwtoria, and the rear, or r&tentura, between the via quintana and the porta decumana. The via praetoria,

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