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On this page: Cassiopea – Cassius – Castalia – Castor – Castra

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CASSIOPEA—— CASTRA.

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Another work of his which has survived is the Varife (Epistulce) in twelve books. This is a collection of imperial rescripts, and has considerable historical importance. These rescripts he made out, partly in the name of Theodoric and his successors, partly in his own name as prcefectus. The book likewise contains a collection of formularies for decrees of nomination. His Gothic his­tory, in twelve books, is only preserved in extracts, and in the paraphrase of Jordanes. The chief aim of his monastic life was a noble one. He hoped to make the monas­teries an asylum of knowledge, in which the literature of classical antiquity and of the Christian age might be collected. The num­ber of books was to be increased by copyists, and the clergy were to gain their necessary education by studying them. The libraries and schools of the mo­nasteries in succeeding centuries were ulti­mately formed upon the model which he set up. Besides a number of theological writings, he composed, in about 544 a.d., a sort of Encyclo­paedia,in four books, for the instruction of his monks. This is the " In­structions in Sacred and Profane Literature" (Institutionss Divina-rum et ScECularium Litterarum). The first part is an introdxiction to the study of theology, the second a sketch of the seven liberal arts. Finally, in his ninety-third year, he compiled a treatise De Ortho-grapMa or on Orthography.

Cassiopea (Gr. KassiOpeia). See andro­meda.

Cassius. (1) Cassius Hemina. See anna­lists. (2) See Dio cassius.

Castalla (Gr. Kastalla). A nymph, the daughter of the river-god Achelous, Pur-. sued by Apollo, she threw herself into a spring on Mount Parnassus, which took its name after her. The spring was conse­crated to Apollo and the Muses, and it was in its water that the pilgrims to the neigh­bouring shrine of Delphi purified themselves.

The Roman poets indulged in the fiction that it conferred poetic inspiration.

Castor(Gr..Kas<or) & Pollux. &e dioscuri.

Castra. A Roman camp, fortified with a rampart and ditch, outside of which a Roman army never spent a single night. It was marked out on a place selected by officers detached for the purpose, generally on the spur of a hill. The same plan was '! always observed, and the divisions indicated by coloured flags and lances, so that the divisions of the army, as they came in, could find their places at once. In the middle of the 2nd century b.c., according to the account of Polybius [vi 27], the plan of

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PLAN OF A ROMAN CAMP.

a camp for a consular army of two legions, with the proper contingent of Italian allies, and its auxiliary troops, was as follows (see Plan). The camp was square, its front being on the side furthest from the enemy. It had two main roads through it. (1) The via princlpalis, 100 feet wide, which divided it into a front part amounting to about two-thirds of the whole, and a back part, turned toward the enemy. This road ended at two gates, the porta principalis deoctra, and the porta principalis sinistra. (2) The via prcetoria, which cut the -via principalis at right angles, and divided

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