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113

CAMPUS MARTIUS——CANDELABRUM.

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priests and priestesses during the perform­ance of their religious functions. It was necessary that they should be born of free parents, and have both parents living. These attendants were especially attached to the Flamen Dialis, and his wife the Flaminlca, and also to the CurionSs.

* CAMILI.US, WITH

ACEKKA AND RICINIUM.

(Bartoli, Admit. 14.)

The priests gene­rally brought up their own children, by preference, for this service, to teach them their duties, and secure them a succession to the priestly office.

* APOLLO AFTER CANACHUS.

{Bronze statuette in British

Museum.)

Campus Martlus ("Field of Mars"). A plain lying to the north of Rome, outside the POmerium, between the Tiber, the Qui-rinal and the Capitoline Hills. (See pome-rium.) During the regal period it was part of the property of the Crown, and, after the expulsion of the kings, was dedicated to Mars. The northern part, on the banks of the Tiber, served as an exercise-ground for the Roman youth for athletics, riding, or military drill. The smaller part, next to the city, was used for the meet­ings of the Comitia Centuriata, and for holding the lus­trum. In the midst of it stood an altar to Mars, which formed the centre of the ceremony of the lustrum, and of some other fes­tivals held on the spot in honour of that deity. (See lustrum.) Until the end of the re­publican age there was only one build­ing on this part of the Campus, the Villa Pubhca. This was the residence assigned to foreign ambassa-

dors and Roman generals on their return from war, to whom the senate granted audiences in the neighbouring temple of Bellona. But in b.c. 55 Pompeius erected in the Campus the first stone theatre built in Rome, with a great colonnade adjoining it. Here too Julius Caesar commenced his marble siepta, or inclosures for the Comitia Cen-turiate, with a great colonnade surrounding the Ovlle. (See comitia.) These were com­pleted by Agrippa in 27 b.c. In B.C. 28, Octavianus Ccesar added the Mausoleum, or hereditary burial-place of the Caesars, and Agrippa the Pantheon and the first Thermae or Baths. Under the succeeding emperors a number of buildings rose here ; for instance, Domitian's Race-course (Sta­dium) and Odeum. The rest of the Campus was left free for gymnastic and military exer­cises, the grounds being magnificently deco­rated with statues and colonnades. The altar survived until the last days of ancient Rome. Canachus (Gr. Kandc.hos). A Greek sculp­tor born in Sicj'on about 480 b.c. He worked in bronze, in the combination of gold and ivory, and also in wood. His master­piece was the colossal bronze statue of Apollo at Miletus, of which some idea may be still derived from ancient coins of that city. It seems to have been extremely antique in its character (see cut).

Candelabrum. A lamp furnished with a point, on which a taper (candela) was fixed. (See lighting.) As the use of lamps became more common, the word candela­brum was transferred to the wooden or metal support, usually made up of a base, a tall thin shaft, and a disc (discus), on which the lamp was set up to illuminate a large room. There were other forms of candelabra, notably the lampddarlum or "lamp-bearer" (see cut, p. 114). This had no disc, but a number of arms, as many as the lamps it was intended to carry. Other candelabra had an apparatus for raising and lowering the lamps. The shaft was hollow, and contained a movable rod, sup­porting the disc or the arms, which could be fixed at any required height by bolts passed through it. Like lamps, candelabra were made in the greatest possible variety of forms, and ornamented in a number of different ways, especially by figures in relief. Besides the portable candelabra in­tended for common use, and set on a table or on the ground, there were large and heavy ones, shaped like pillars, and set up on fixed pedestals as ornaments for temples and palaces (see cut, p. 114).

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