The Ancient Library

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On this page: Callisto – Callistratus – Callynteria – Calpis – Calpurnius – Calumnia – Calydonian Hunt – Clypso – Camenae – Cameos – Camilli and Camillae



lowing centuries. This was translated into Latin towards the end of the 3rd century a.d. by Julius Valerius, and became the main authority for the mediseval adaptations of th« myth of Alexander.

Callisto (Gr. Kattisto). A nymph, the daughter of the Arcadian Lycaon, and a companion of Artemis. She became, by Zeus, the mother of Areas, the ancestor of the Arcadians. She was 'turned into a bear, according to one account by the jealous Hera, according to another by Zeus, who was anxious to protect her from Hera's wrath. In this shape she was slain by Artemis, and set among the constellations by Zeus under the title of the She-Bear. There was another story, according to which Callisto's son was intending to slay his transformed mother while hunting; upon which Zeus set him in the sky under the name of Arcturus (Arktouros), the Watcher of the Bear, and his mother under the name of Arctus (Arktos), the She-Bear. As the stars bearing these names never set, Homer describes them as the only ones which have no share in the bath of the ocean. Later poets, accordingly, invented the further story that Tethys, wishing to gratify Hera, refused to receive her former rival into her waters.

Callistratns (Gr. KallistrMos). A Greek rhetorician, who probably flourished in the 3rd century A.D. He was the author of de­scriptions of fourteen statues of celebrated artists, Scopas, for instance, Praxiteles, and Lysippus, written after the manner of Phi-lostratus. His style is dry and affected, and he gives the reader no real insight into the qualities of the masterpieces which he attempts to describe.

Callynterla (Gr. Kallynterla) and Plyn-terla ("Feasts of Adorning and Cleansing "), were the names given to the two chief days of a service of atonement held at Athens from the 19th to the 25th of Thargellon (or May-June). The Erecththeum, or sanc­tuary of Athene of the stronghold, was cleansed, the ancient wooden image of the goddess was unclothed, the garments washed and the image itself purified. These duties were performed, with mysterious rites, by | the family of the Praxiegidge, with the aid of certain women called Plyntrldes. The Plynteria, or day on which the image was washed, was an unlucky day, on which no public business was transacted. The cere­monies would seem originally to have been intended to commemorate the season of the year and the ripening of the corn and fruit,

for which the votaries of the powerful god­dess desired to secure her favour.

Calpis (Gr. Kaljiis). See vessels.

Calpurnlus. (1) Calpurnius Piso Frugl. See annalists.

(2) Titus Calpurnius Slculus, a Roman poet, who nourished in the middle of the 1st century a.d. At the beginning of Nero's reign he wrote seven Ecldgce, or bucolic poems, which are somewhat servile imitations of Theocritus and Vergil. : The language is declamatory, but the laws of metre are strictly observed. The poet was poor, and wished his writings to be brought under the notice of the young emperor, through the instrumentality of a personage high in favour at court. This individual appears under the name of Meli-boeus, and has sometimes been supposed to have been the philosopher Seneca, some­times the Piso who was executed in 65 a.d. as the leader of a conspiracy against Nero. Calpurnius lavishes the most fulsome praises upon the emperor. Pour of the Eclfigce, which were formerly attributed to Calpur­nius, are now known to have been written by Nemesianus, who not only imitates Cal­purnius, but plagiarizes from him.

(3) Calpurnius Flaccus, a Latin rhetori­cian of uncertain date, under whose name fifty-one school-boy harangues, or rather ex­tracts from them, have come down to us.

Calumnla (in old Latin Kalumnia). The Latin word for slander. It was technically applied to false accusations. The falsely accused person, if acquitted, had the right of accusing the prosecutor in his turn on the charge of calumnia before the same jury. In civil cases the penalty was a pecu­niary fine; in criminal cases the calum­niator lost his right to appear again as a prosecutor, and in early times was branded on the forehead with a K.

Calydonian (Gr. Kalydonian) Hunt. See meleager (1) and (eneus.

Calypso (Gr. Kalypso). A nymph, the daughter of Atlas, who dwelt on the island of Ogygia, where she gave a friendly welcome to Odysseus, whom she kept with her for seven years. (See odysseus.)

Camenas (Latin). The name of certain fountain nymphs, who presided over child­birth. They had also the gift of prophecy, and were identified by the Latin poets with the Greek Muses. (See muses.)

Cameos, and The Gonzaga Cameo, See gems.

Camilli and Camilla. The Latin name for the boys and girls who attended on the

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