The Ancient Library

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lunar year of 355 days with the solar year of 365 ; but how he did it is not certainly known. The Decemviri in 450 b.c. pro­bably introduced the system of adjustment afterwards in use. According to this a cycle of four years was taken, in the second year of which an intercalary month (mcnsis mercedonlus) of 23 days was inserted be­tween the 24th and 25th of February, and in the fourth year a month of 22 days be­tween the 23rd and 24th February. Thus the period of 4 years amounted to 1465 days. But this gave the year an average of 366j days, or one day too many, so that a special rectification was necessary from time to time. This was probably carried out by the omission of an intercalary month. It was the business of the PontlflcSs to keep the calendar in order by regular intercala­tion ; but, partly from carelessness, partly from political motives, they made insertions and omissions so incorrectly as to bring the calendar into complete disorder, and destroy the correspondence between the months and the seasons. The mischief was finally remedied by Caesar, with the assistance of the mathematician Soslgenes. To bring the calendar into correspondence with the seasons, the year 46 b.c. was lengthened so as to consist of 15 months, or 415 days, and the calendar known as the Julian was in­troduced on the 1st January, 45 b.c. This calendar is founded simply on the solar year, which is well known to be a discovery of the Egyptians. Caesar fixed this year to 365j days, which is correct within a few minutes. After this the ordinary year con­sisted of 3C5 days, divided into 12 months, with the names still in use. Every fourth year had 366 days, a day being inserted at the end of February. The Julian calendar maintained its ground till 1582, when Pope Gregory XIII corrected the trifling error which still attached to it. The old names of the months were retained with two excep­tions, that of Quintilis, which, in honour of Csesar, was called lulius, and that of Sex-tilis, which in 8 b.c. was called Augustus in honour of the emperor. The old divisions of the lunar month were also retained for convenience of dating. These were (a) the Kalendce, marking the first appearance of the new moon; (&) the Nonce, marking the first quarter; (c) the Iclfis, marking the full moon. Kalendos means properly the day of summoning, from caldre, to summon. The Pontifex was bound to observe the first phase, and to make his announcement to the Rex Sacrfaitm, who then summoned

the people to the Capitol, in front of the Curia Calabra, so called from calarc. Here he offered sacrifice, and announced that the first quarter would begin on the 5th or 7th day (inclusive) as the case might be. This day was called Nonce, as (according to Roman calculation) the 9th day before the full moon, and fell in March, May, July and October on the 7th, in the other months on the 5th. The appearance of the full moon was called Idus (probably connected with the Etruscan word idnare, to divide), because it divided the month in the middle. The days of the month were counted back­wards, in the first half of the month from the Nones and Ides, in the last half from the Kalends of the following month. The Romans also had a week called internundt-num,or the interval between two nundinal. It consisted of eight days, and, like our weeks, could be divided between two months or two years. (For further details see fasti.)

After the establishment of the Republic the Romans named their years after the consuls, a custom which was maintained down to the reign of Justinian (541 a.d.). After the time of Augustus it became the practice in literature to date events from the foundation of Rome, which took place according to Varro in 753, according to Cato in 751 b.c.

The Day. The Greeks reckoned the civil day from sunset to sunset, the Romans (like ourselves) from midnight to midnight. The natural day was reckoned by both as lasting from sunrise to sunset. The divisions of the day were for a long time made on no common principle. It was for military pur­poses that the Romans first hit on such a principle, dividing the night during service into four equal watches (viglllai). Corre­sponding to this we find another division (probably calculated immediately for the courts of justice) into mane (sunrise to 9 or 10), forenoon (aid meridiem), afternoon (de mcridie) until 3 or 4, and evening (suprgma) from thence till sunset. After the introduction of sun-dials and water-clocks the day and night were divided each into 12 hours; but the division was founded on the varying length of the day, so that each hour of the day was longer, and con­versely each hour of the night shorter, in summer than in winter.

Callga. A boot with large nails in the sole, worn in ancient Italy by huntsmen, waggoners, and peasants, and, during the imperial period, by common soldiers.

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