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many-aidedness of his genius and literary activity, but these are also lost. There were poems, which never attained much reputation, including, besides boyish effusions, some verses on his journey to Spain in b.c. 46. A treatise on Latin accidence, dedicated to Cicero, and entitled De Analogld, was written during his march across the Alps to his army in Gaul. The Anticatones, composed in his Spanish camp before the battle of Munda in B.C. 45, was a reply to Cicero's panegyric on Cato of Utica. A treatise on astronomy, De Astrls, had probably some connection with the reform of the calendar introduced by him, as Pontifex Maximus, in B.C. 45. His two great works have, however, survived. These are his Commentarii de Bella Galileo, 58-52 b.c., in seven books, and his Commentarii de Bella Civili, 49-48 b.c., in three books. The former was written down rapidly, at the end of 52 and beginning of 51, in his winter quarters before Bibracte. The latter was probably composed in Spain after the conquest of the Pompeians in 45.
The history of the Gallic War was completed after Csesar's death byAulus Hirtius. This writer added an eightli book, which included the last rising of the Gauls in 51, and the events of the year 50 which preceded the Civil War. The book, as we now have it, is unfinished. There are three other anonymous books which continue the history of the Civil wpt. The Helium Alexandnnum (War in j-lexandria) is perhaps from the hand of Hirtius. The Helium Africum (War in Africa) is written in a pompous and affected style [and has recently been assigned, but without sufficient reason, to Asinius Pollio], The Bellum Hispanum (Spanish War), is to be attributed to two different authors. Its style is rough, and shows that the writer waa not an educated man.
Caesins Bassus. A Latin poet, a friend of Persius the satirist, whose book he edited. He is said to have perished during the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. He had a high reputation in his day as a lyric poet, and is said to have composed a didactic poem on metre. There is a considerable fragment in prose on the same subject which bears the name of Csesius Bassus, but this is perhaps from a prose version of the poetical treatise.
Calais (Gr. Kala'is) and Zttes. The Borg-adae, or sons of BSreas and Orlthyia. They were both winged heroes, and took part in
the Argonautic expedition. Coming in the course of the enterprise to Salmydessus, they set free Phineus, the husband of their sister Cleopatra, from the Harpies, chasing them through the air on their wings (see phineus). According to one story, they perished on this occasion; according to another, they were slain afterwards by Heracles on the island of Tenos, on their return from the funeral games of PSlIas (see acastusj. This was in retribution for the counsel which they had given to the Argonauts on the coast of Mysia, to leave Heracles behind. Their graves and monuments were shown in Tenos. One of the pillars was said to move when the north wind blew.
Calamis (Ralamis). A Greek artist, who nourished at Athens about 470 B.C. He worked in marble and metal, as well as gold and ivory, and was master of sculpture in all its branches, from the chiselling of small silver vessels to the execution of colossal statues in bronze. His Apollo, at Apollonia in Pontus, was 120 feet high. This statue was carried away to Rome by Lucullus, and set up on the Capitol. We hear of statues of the gods and heroic women from his hand, as well as of men on horseback and four-horsed chariots. His horses are said to have been unsurpassed. His female figures, if we may believe the ancient critics, were characterized by antique harshness and severity, but were relieved by a touch of grace and delicacy.
Calamus. See writing materials.
Calantlca. See clothing.
Caiathus (Gr. KalathOs). See vessels.
Calceus. A shoe, part of the regular Roman dress, and usually worn in public. Each order, and every gens, had its particular kind of calceus. The patricians wore a mulleus or calceus patricius. This was a shoe of red leather with a high sole, like that of the cothurmts. The leather passed round the back of the heel, where it was furnished with small hooks, to which the straps were fastened. It was originally a part of the royal dress, and was afterwards worn by generals on the occasion of a triumph. In later times, with the rest of the triumphal costume, it became a part of the dress of the consuls. In the second rank came the calceus sendtOrlus, or shoe worn by senators. This was black, and tied round the leg by four straps. In the case of patricians it was ornamented by a crescent-shaped clasp. The calceus of the