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On this page: Bule – Bulla – Buphonia – Burial

101

BULE——BURIAL.

passed in his own style, which was cultivated after him by Bion and Moschus.

The pastoral style was introduced into Latin poetry by Vergil, who, while closely imitating Theocritus, had the tact to per­ceive that the simple sketches of ancient rural life in Sicily given by his master would not be sufficient to satisfy the taste of his countrymen. Under the mask of shepherds, therefore, he introduced con­temporary characters, thus winning atten­tion by the expression of his personal feel­ings, and by covert allusions to events of the day. Two poems falsely attributed to him, the Morltmn (" Salad ") and Copa (" Hos­tess"), are real idylls; true and natural studies from low life. Vergil's allegorical style was revived in later times by Cal-purnius in the age of Nero, and Nemesianus at the end of the 3rd century a.d.

Bule. See boule.

Bulla. A round or heart-shaped box containing an amulet, worn round the neck by free-born Roman children. The fashion was borrowed from the Etrurians. To wear a golden bulla was originally a privilege of the patricians, which was in later times extended to the IquUes, and general!}' to rich and distinguished families. Leather bullce were worn by the children of poor families and of freedmen. Boys ceased to wear the bulla when they assumed the toga virllis. It was then dedicated to the LarSs, and hung up over the hearth. Girls most probably left it off on marriage. It was sometimes put on by adults as a pro­tection against the evil eye on special oc­casions, as, for instance, on that of a triumph. (See fascincm).

Buphdnla. See DurouA.

Burial. (1) Greek. The Greeks regarded the burial of the dead as one of the most sacred duties. Its neglect involved an offence against the dead ; for, according to the popular belief, the soul obtained no rest in the realms of the dead, so long as the body remained unburied. It involved, further, an offence against the gods, both of the upper and the lower world. The unburied corpse was an offence to the eyes of the former, while the latter were deprived of their due. Any one finding an unburied corpse was expected at least to throw a handful of dust over it. If a general neglected to provide for the burial of the slain in war, he was deemed guilty of a capital offence. Burial of the dead was not refused even to the enemy, whether Greek or barbarian. It was a violation of

the laws of war to refuse to the conquered the truce necessary for this purpose ; and if the conquered were unable to fulfil the duty, the responsibility fell upon the con­querors. There were certain circumstances under which, according to Athenian law, children, during the lifetime of their fathers, were held free from all obligations to them; but the obligation to give them burial after death was never cancelled.

The usages of the Athenians, and proba­bly of the other Greeks, were as follows. The eyes of the dead having been closed, an ObOlos was put in the mouth as passage-money for Charon. The body was then washed and anointed by the women of the family, who proceeded to adorn it with fillets and garlands (commonly of ivy), to clothe it in white garments, and lay it out on a couch in the hall, with its face turned to the door. The kinsfolk and friends stood by, mourning; but the laws of Solon forbade all exaggerated expressions of grief. Hired women were sometimes introduced, singing dirges to the accompaniment of the flute. Near the couch were placed painted earthen­ware vases containing the libations to be afterwards offered. Before the door was a vessel of water, intended for the purifica­tion of all who went out. This water might not be brought from another house in which a dead body lay. The corpse was laid out on the day following the death; and on the next day before sunrise (lest the sun should be polluted by the sight) was carried out to the place of burial, attended by kinsmen and friends, who sometimes acted as bearers. This office, however, was usually performed by freedmen or hired assistants; in the case of men of mark, it would be undertaken by young Athenian citizens. The procession was headed by men singing songs of mourning, or women playing the flute; then came the male mourners in garments of black or grey, and with hair cut short; and these were followed by the bier. Behind the bier fol­lowed a train of women, including all who were related to the dead as far as to the fifth degree. No other women might attend but those who were more than sixty years of age.

In the heroic age the bodies are always burnt, burial being unknown; but in later times burial and burning are found existing side by side, burial being preferred by the poor on the ground of expense. In case of burial, the body was placed in a coffin of wood, clay, or stone, or in a chamber in a

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