The Ancient Library

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On this page: Arrogatio – Arrows – Arsinoe – Art – Artemidorus – Artemis



it by Simplicius in the 6th century, and after the revival of learning was long used as a schoolbook. Of his numerous his­torical writings we possess the chief one, the Andbdsis of Alexander in seven books. This is a complete history of that conqueror from his accession to his death, drawn from the best sources, especially Ptolemy and Aristobulus, and modelled on Xenophon, of whom we are reminded by the very title and the number of books, though it has none of Xenophon's charm. It is the best work on Alexander that has survived from antiquity. To this we should add the Indlca, a short work on India, written in the Ionic dialect, and especially valuable for its abstract of Nearchus' report of his voyage from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian Gulf; also the description of another coasting voyage, the Plrfplus Ponti Euxlni, and a trifling treatise on hunting, the Cynlgftlcus. A work on tactics wrongly ascribed to him is probably from the hand of .filian the Tactician. Of his other His­tories, e.g. of the Successors of Alexander, of Trajan's battles with the Parthians, of his own native country till its absorption in the Empire, and the campaign against the Alani during his command in Cappadocia, we have only abstracts or fragments.

Arr6gatI6, one of the kinds of adoption known to the Romans. (For further infor­mation see adoption.)

Arrows. See Bows.

Arsln6e. See alphesib<ea.

Art. See architecture, architecture (orders of), painting, and sculpture; and comp. coinage and gems.

Artenildorus, (1) The Geographer, of Ephesus, who travelled about 100 b.c. through the countries bordering on the Mediterranean and part of the Atlantic coast, and wrote a long work on his re­searches, the GcographumSna in eleven books, as well as an abstract of the same. Of both works, which were much consulted by later geographers, we have only fragments.

(2) Artemidorus the Dream-Interpreter, born at Ephesus at the beginning of the 2nd century a.d., surnamed " the Daldian " from his mother's birthplace, Daldis in Lydia, wrote a work on the Interpretation of Dreams, the OneirOcritlca, in four books. He had gathered his materials from the works of earlier authors, and by oral in­quiries during his travels in Asia, Italy and Greece. The book is an acute exposition of the theory of interpreting dreams, and its practical application to examples systema-

tically arranged according to the several stages of human life. An appendix, counted as a fifth book, gives a collection of dreams that have come true. For the light thrown on the mental condition of antiquity, espe­cially in the 2nd century after Christ, and for many items of information on religious rites and myths relating to dreams, these writings are of value.

Artemis (Lat. Diana). The virgin daugh­ter of Zeus and Leto (Latona), by the common account born a twin-sister of Apollo, and just before him, at DelSs. The Ortygia (see asteria) named in another tradition as her birthplace^ was interpreted to mean Delos, though several other places where the wor­ship of Artemis had long prevailed put forward pretensions to that name and its mythological renown, especially the well-known island of Ortygia off Syracuse. She, as well as her mother, was worshipped jointly with her brother at Delos, Delphi and all the most venerable spots where Apollo was honoured. She is armed, as he is, with bow and arrow, which, like him, and often together with him, she wields against mon­sters and giants; hence the^xzon was chanted to her as well as to him. Like those of Apollo, the shafts of Artemis were regarded as the cause of sudden death, especially to maidens and wives. But she was also a beneficent and helpful deity. As Apollo is the luminous god of day, she with her torch is a goddess of light by night, and in course of time becomes identified with all possible goddesses of moon and night. (See selene, hecate, bendis, britomartis.) Her pro­per domain is that of Nature, with its hills and valleys, woods, meadows, rivers and fountains ; there amid her nymphs, her­self the fairest and tallest, she is a mighty huntress, sometimes chasing wild animals, sometimes dancing, playing, or bathing with her companions. Her favourite haunt was thought to be the mountains and forests of Arcadia, where, in many spots, she had sanctuaries, consecrated hunting-grounds, and sacred animals. To her, as goddess of the forest and the chase, all beasts of the woods and fields, in fact all game, were dear and sacred; but her favourite animal was held all over Greece to be the hind. From this sacred animal and the hunt­ing of it, the month which the other Greeks called Artemislon or ArternisiOs (March-April) was named by the Athenians Elaphe-bdlwn (deer-shooting), and her festival as goddess of game and hunting, at which deer or cakes in the shape of

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All non-public domain material, including introductions, markup, and OCR © 2005 Tim Spalding.