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ARCHITECTURE, ORDERS OF.
part is also less than in the Doric columns,
the distance between each column greater
(two diameters), the flutings (generally 24
in number) deeper,
small flat surfaces. 5
The Ionic column ;
r8"3*^ Co""ce' |
has a base, consist- *
I — Frieze. it
ing of a square slab * (plinthOs), and •
1 c 1 . , =g...— .......— ....... g
| ) Architrave. •
'1 ^—— «q>— Lyf ................
like supports sepa-
rated by grooves.
The capital, again,
is more artistically
neck, instead of
flutings, has five
leaves worked in
relief. The echinus $
is very small and ;
ornamented with ]
an egg pattern. «
Over it, instead of j
the abacus, is a "
cushion ending be-
fore and behind in
spiral volutes, sup-
porting a narrow
square slab, which
is also adorned with
an egg pattern.
The architrave is
.fr -S'i Base.
divided into three a. Cyma recta, g. Volutes. bands, projecting b0;SS,n.. i^T'-one above the a- g1010-. *• TrociuiuB.
^. , ., e. Cymation. 1. Quadra.
other, ana upon it f. Abacus. m. plinth.
rises, in an unin- (5) From the Pantheon, Rome.
terrupted surface, corinthian ordeb. the frieze, adorned
with reliefs continuously along its whole length. Finally, the cornice is composed of different parts.
(Ill) The Corinthian column (fig. 4, from the monument of Lyslcrates, at Athens). The base and shaft are identical with the Ionic, but the capital takes the form of an open calix formed of acanthus leaves. Above this is another set of leaves, from between which grow stalks with small leaves, rounded into the form of volutes. On this rests a small abacus widening towards the top, and on this again the entablature, which is borrowed from the Ionic order. On the human figures employed instead of columns to support the entablature, see atlas, canephori, caryatides.
The Romans adopted the Greek styles of
column, but not always in their pure form. They were fondest of the Corinthian, which they laboured to enrich with new and often excessive ornamentation. For instance, they crowned the Corinthian capital with the Ionic, thus forming what is called the Roman or composite capital.
The style known as Tuscan is a degenerate form of the Doric. The Tuscan column has a smooth shaft, in height = 7 diameters of the lower part, and tapering up to three-quarters of its lower dimensions. Its base consists of two parts, a circular plinth, and a cushion of equal height. The capital is formed of three parts of equal height.
In other styles, too, the Romans sometimes adopted the smooth instead of the fluted shaft, as for instance in the Pantheon (fig. 5).
Single columns were sometimes erected by the Greeks, and in imitation of them by the Romans, as memorials to distinguished
COLUMN OF MARCUS AURELIUS. (With its surroundings as restored by Canina, Arch. Rom, tar. 204.)
persons. A good example is the Columna Rostrfita, or column with its shaft adorned with the beaks of ships, in the Roman