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As it was in the construction of Temples (q.v.) that architecture had developed her favourite forms, all other public buildings borrowed their artistic character from the temple. The structure and furniture of private houses (see house), were, during the best days of Greece, kept down to the simplest forms. About 600 B.C., in the Greek islands and on the coast of Asia Minor, we come across the first architects known to us by name. It was then that and TheodOrus of Samos, cele-
period, in addition to many ruined temples in Sicily (especially at Selmus and Agri-gentum), should be mentioned the Temple of Poseidon at Psestum (Poseidonia) in South Italy, one of the best preserved and most beautiful relics of antiquity (figs. 4, 5). The patriotic fervour of the Persian Wars created a general expansion of Greek life, in which Architecture and the sister art of Sculpture were not &low to take a part. In these departments, as in the whole onward movement, a central position was taken by Athens, whose leading statesmen, Cimon and Pericles, lavished the great resources of the State at once in strengthening and beautifying the city. During this period arose a
(4) * EXTEKIOB OF TKHPLE OF POSEIDON AT P.SSTCM (79 ft. X 195 ft.).
brated likewise as inventors of casting in bronze, built the great temple of Hera in that island, while ChersiphrSn of Cnosus in Crete, with his son Metilggnls, began the temple of Artemis (Diana) at EphSsus, one of the seven wonders of the world, which was not finished till 120 years after. In Greece Proper a vast temple to Zeus was begun at Athens in the 6th century b.c. (see olympieom), and two more at Delphi and Olympia, one by the Corinthian Spinthdrus, the other by the Elean Libon. Here, and in the Western colonies the Doric style still predominated everywhere. Among the chief remains of this
group of masterpieces that still astonish us in their ruins, some in the forms of a softened Doric, others in the Ionic style, which had now found its way into Attica, and was here fostered into nobler shapes. The Doric order is represented by the Temple of Theseus (fig. 6), the Propylsea built by MnesMSs, the Parthenon, a joint production of Ictlnus and Callicr&te's; while the Erechtheum is the most brilliant creation of the Ionic order in Attica. Of the influence of Attic Architecture on the rest of Greece we have proof, especially in the Temple of Apollo at Bassse in South-WesternArcadia,built from the design of the above-mentioned Ictinus.