Scanned text contains errors.
(2) A' sister of HippSlyte, queen of the Amazons; who, according to one account, fall as a prize of war to Theseus for his share in Heracles' campaign against the Amazons, according to another, was carried off by him and his friend Pirithous. When the Amazons attacked Athens in return, she is variously represented as persuading them to peace, or falling in battle against them by the side of Theseus; or, again, as killed by Heracles, when she inter-
Antiphanes. The most prolific and important author, with Alexis, of the Attic Middle Comedy; he came of a family which had migrated from Larissa in Thessaly; was born b.c. 408, and died at the age of 74. He is said to have written 260 plays, of which over 200 are known to us by their titles and fragments, yet he won the prize only thirteen times. He is praised for dramatic ability, wit, and neatness of form.
Antlphllus. A Greek painter born in Egypt in the latter half of the 4th century B.C., a contemporary and rival of Apelles; he probably spent the last part of his life at the court of the first Ptolemy. The ancients praise the lightness and dexterity with which he handled subjects of high art, as well as scenes in daily life. Two of his pictures in the latter kind were especially famous, one of a boy blowing a fire, and another of women dressing wool. From his having painted a man named GryllCs (=pig) with playful allusions to the sitter's name, caricatures in general came to be called grylloi, [Pliny, H. N., 35. 114, 138].
Antlphon. The earliest of the ten great Attic orators, born b.c. 480 at Rhamnus in Attica, son of the sophist Sophllus, to whom he owed his training. He was the founder of political eloquence as an art, which he taught with great applause in his own school of rhetoric; and he was the first who wrote out speeches for others to deliver in court, though he afterwards published them under his own name. He also played an active part in the politics of his time as a leading member of the oligarchical party, and the real author of the deathblow which was dealt to democracy in 411 b.c. by the establishment of the Council of Four Hun-
dred. Then he went as ambassador to Sparta, to purchase peace at any price in the interest of the oligarchy. On the fall of the Four Hundred he was accused of high treason, and in spite of a masterly defence—the first speech he had ever made in public — was condemned to death b.c. 411. Of the sixty orations attributed to him, only fifteen are preserved, all on trials for murder; but only three of them are about real cases. The rest (named tetralogies, because every four are the first and second speeches of both plaintiff and defendant on the same subject) are mere exercises. Antiphon's speeches exhibit the art of oratory in its rudimentary stage as regards both substance and form.
Antisthenes. A Greek philosopher of Athens, born about 440 b.c., but only a half citizen, because his mother was a Thracian. He was in his youth a pupil of Gorgias, and himself taught for a time as a sophist, till, towards middle life, he attached himself to Socrates, and became his bosom friend. After the death of Socrates in b.c. 399 he established a school in the gymnasium Kyndsarge's, the only one open to persons of half-Athenian descent, whence his followers bore the name of Cynici (Kynlkoi). He lived to the age of seventy. Like Socrates, he regarded virtue as necessary, indeed, alone sufficient for happiness, and to be a branch of knowledge that could kbe taught, and that once acquired could not be lost, its essence consisting in freedom from wants by the avoidance of evil, i.e. of pleasure and desire. Its acquisition needs no dialectic argumentation, only Socratic strength. His pupils, especially the famous DiOggnls of Sinope, degraded his doctrine to cynicism by depreciating all knowledge and despising the current morality of the time. His philosophical and rhetorical works are lost, all but two slight declamations on the contest for the arms of Achilles, the Aias and Odysseus; and even their genuineness is disputed.
Antistins Labeo (Quintus). A renowned jurist of Augustus' time, a man of wide scholarship and strict republican views, which lost him the emperor's favour. His writings on law amounted to 400 books, portions of which are preserved in the Pandects of Justinian's Corpus luris. Aiming at a progressive development of law, he became the founder of a school of lawyers named Proculians after his pupil Sempronius PrSculus. See ateius capito.
Antoninus. (1) Marc,us Awelius, sur-